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(Solved) RUNNING HEAD: LESSON 10 DOCUMENT Lesson 10


I have attached an example sheet and the homework instruction sheet. Please use excel thank you?


RUNNING HEAD: LESSON 10 DOCUMENT

 


 

Lesson 10 document

 


 

Name:

 


 

Institution:

 


 

1

 


 

LESSON 10 DOCUMENT

 


 

2

 


 

A fungus is a eukaryotic organism.it includes unicellular yeast and molds as well as

 

organism classified as kingdom specific to fungi.

 

Fungi are heterotrophs. They cannot make their own food. They digest heir food while

 

it?s still in the environment by secreting hydrolytic enzymes also called exozymes which break

 

down complex molecules into smaller organic compounds which they can absorb. Ban example

 

of fungi is mushroom.

 

Ascomycota?s is a division of of the kingdom fungi and subkingdom diary. Its members

 

are known as sac fungi. They are the largest phylum of fungi with several speies. Scomycetes are

 

beneficial in several ways especially in baking and brewing industry. Aspergillums orate is used

 

in the fermentation of rice to produce sake.

 

Other ascomycetes are harmful to humans. The majority fungi belong to the Phylum

 

Ascomycota, characterized by the formation of an ascs a sac-like structure contains haploid

 

ascospores. Many ascomycetes are of commercial importance. Some play a role, such as the

 

yeasts in baking, brewing, and wine fermentation, truffles and morels, which are held as

 

delicacies. Aspergillus oryzae used in the fermentation of rice to sake. Other ascomycetes

 

parasitize living things, For example, fungal pneumonia poses threat to AIDS patients who have

 

a compromisedimmunty. Ascomycetes infest and destroy crops, they also produce poisonous

 

secondary metabolites that make crops unfit. Filamentous ascomycetes produce hyphae divided

 

by perforated septa, streaming of cytoplasm from one cell to the other. Conidia and asci, which

 

are used respectively for asexual and sexual reproductions, are usually separated from the

 

vegetative hyphae by blocked (non-perforated) septa.

 

When a plant, animal, or insect dies, that plant, animal, or insect is broken into tiny

 

pieces and those pieces become part of the soil. This is called decomposition.

 

All beers are brewed using a process based on a simple formula. Key to the beer making process

 

is malted grain, depending on the region traditionally barley, wheat or sometimes rye.

 

Malt is made by allowing a grain to germinate, after which it is then dried in a kiln and

 

sometimes roasted. The germination process creates a number of enzymes, notably alfa-amylase

 

and beta-amylase, which will be used to convert the starch in the grain into sugar. Depending on

 


 

LESSON 10 DOCUMENT

 


 

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the amount of roasting, the malt will take on dark color and strongly influence the color and

 

flavor of the beer. Breweries buy malt and this is not a process that is done in-house.

 

The malt is crushed in a malt mill to break apart the grain kernels, increase their surface area, and

 

separate the smaller pieces from the husks. The resulting grist is mixed with heated water in a vat

 

called a "mash tun" for a process known as "mashing". During this process, natural enzymes

 

within the malt break down much of the starch into sugars which play a vital part in the

 

fermentation process. Mashing usually takes 1 to 2 hours, and during this time various

 

temperature rests (waiting periods) activate different enzymes depending upon the type of malt

 

being used, its modification level, and the desires of the brew master. The activity of these

 

enzymes converts the starches of the grains to doctrines and then to fermentable sugars such as

 

maltose.

 

A mash rest at 104 ?F or 40 ?C activates beta-glucoses, which breaks down gummy beta-gleans

 

in the mash, making the sugars flow out more freely later in the process. A mash rest from 120 ?F

 

to 130 ?F (49 ?C to 55 ?C) activates various proteinases, which break down proteins that might

 

otherwise cause the beer to be hazy. But care is of the essence since the head on beer is also

 

composed primarily of proteins, so too aggressive a protein rest can result in a beer that cannot

 

hold a head. This rest is generally used only with under modified (i.e. under malted) malts which

 

are popular in Germany and the Czech Republic, or non-malted grains such as corn and rice,

 

which are widely used in North American beers. Finally, a mash rest temperature of 149 to 160

 

?F (65 to 71 ?C) is used to convert the starches in the malt to sugar, which is then usable by the

 

yeast later in the industrial brewing process. Doing the latter rest at the lower end of the range

 

produces more low-order sugars which are more fermentable by the yeast. This in turn creates a

 

beer lower in body and higher in alcohol. A rest closer to the higher end of the range creates

 

more higher-order sugars which are less fermentable by the yeast, so a fuller-bodied beer with

 

less

 


 

alcohol

 


 

is

 


 

the

 


 

result.

 


 

Finally the mash temperature may be raised to 165 ?F to 170 ?F (about 75 ?C) (known as a

 

mahout) to deactivate enzymes. Additional water may be sprinkled on the grains to extract

 

additional

 


 

sugars

 


 

(a

 


 

process

 


 

known

 


 

as

 


 

sparing).

 


 

LESSON 10 DOCUMENT

 


 

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After the mashing, the mash is pumped to a later ton where the resulting liquid is strained from

 

the grains in a process known as loitering. The later ton generally contains a slotted "false

 

bottom" or other form of manifold which acts as a strainer allowing for the separation of the

 

liquid

 


 

from

 


 

the

 


 

grain.

 


 

At this point the liquid is known as worth. The worth is moved into a large tank known as a

 

"cooking ton" or kettle where it is boiled with hops and sometimes other ingredients such as

 

herbs or sugars. The boiling process serves to terminate enzymatic processes, precipitate

 

proteins, isomerize hop resins, concentrate and sterilize the worth. Hops add flavor, aroma and

 

bitterness

 


 

to

 


 

the

 


 

beer.

 


 

At the end of the boil, the hopped worth settles to clarify using hop filters. SBM does not use the

 

whirlpool

 


 

system

 


 

for

 


 

hop

 


 

separation.

 


 

The worth is then moved into a temperature controlled cylindrical-conical "fermenter" where

 

yeast is added or "pitched" with it. The yeast converts the sugars from the malt into alcohol,

 

carbon dioxide and other components through a process called fermentation or glycolysis. After a

 

week to three weeks, the fresh (or "green") beer is cooled close to freezing temperature, yeast is

 

purged and the beer is allowed to "lager" or rest. After this conditioning for a week to several

 

months, the beer is often filtered to remove remaining yeast and particulates. The "bright beer" is

 

then

 


 

ready

 


 

for

 


 

serving

 


 

or

 


 

packaging.

 


 

There are four main families of beer styles determined by the variety of yeast used in their

 

brewing.

 

After the grapes are sorted, they are ready to be de-stemmed and crushed. For many years, men

 

and women did this manually by stomping the grapes with their feet. Nowadays, most wine

 

makers perform this mechanically. Mechanical presses stomp or trod the grapes into what is

 

called must. Must is simply freshly pressed grape juice that contains the skins, seeds, and solids.

 

Mechanical pressing has brought tremendous sanitary gain as well as increased the longevity and

 

quality of the wine.

 


 

LESSON 10 DOCUMENT

 


 

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For white wine, the wine maker will quickly crush and press the grapes in order to separate the

 

juice from the skins, seeds, and solids. This is to prevent unwanted color and tannins from

 

leaching into the wine. Red wine, on the other hand, is left in contact with the skins to acquire

 

flavor, color, and additional tannins.

 

After crushing and pressing, fermentation comes into play. Must (or juice) can begin fermenting

 

naturally within 6-12 hours when aided with wild yeasts in the air. However, many wine makers

 

intervene and add a commercial cultured yeast to ensure consistency and predict the end result.

 

Fermentation continues until all of the sugar is converted into alcohol and dry wine is produced.

 

To create a sweet wine, wine makers will sometimes stop the process before all of the sugar is

 

converted. Fermentation can take anywhere from 10 days to one month or more.

 

Once fermentation is complete, clarification begins. Clarification is the process in which solids

 

such as dead yeast cells, tannins, and proteins are removed. Wine is transferred or ?racked? into a

 

different vessel such as an oak barrel or a stainless steel tank. Wine can then be clarified through

 

fining or filtration.

 

Fining occurs when substances are added to the wine to clarify it. For example, a wine maker

 

might add a substance such as clay that the unwanted particles will adhere to. This will force

 

them to the bottom of the tank. Filtration occurs by using a filter to capture the larger particles in

 

the wine. The clarified wine is then racked into another vessel and prepared for bottling or future

 

aging.

 

Something that is very important to take note of if you are going to try and identify a mushroom

 

is... did the mushroom sprout out of the ground, or is it growing out of a piece of wood? There

 

are two main ways that mushrooms get nutrition and figuring that out can be an important part of

 

identifying it.

 

First of all we have to talk about what a mushroom really is. Fungi are organisms that are

 

different from both plants and animals, although we used to think they were a kind of plant

 

(because they are attached to the ground and can't wander around freely). But it turns out that

 

genetically, fungi are closer to animals than they are to plants - we both have chitin in our cell

 


 

LESSON 10 DOCUMENT

 


 

6

 


 

walls, for instance. The actual fungus grows as a network of threads called mycelium that

 

permeate the ground and can grow for miles, sort of like the roots of a plant but smaller than the

 

width of a human hair. When conditions are right, and the fungus feels it has a good chance at

 

reproducing, it will expend the energy to grow a mushroom (like a fruit or a flower that a plant

 

grows). Because of the vast difference in size between the invisible threads of the fungus itself

 

and its fruit, the mushroom, it almost seems analogous to a tree growing an apple that is the size

 

of the Empire State Building. Unlike plants that sprout flowers and fruit like clockwork every

 

year, not all fungi will grow mushrooms every year. Since the organism is invisibly tiny, you can

 

imagine that it takes a LOT of energy to create a "fruit" that is orders of magnitude more massive

 

than itself, so they are fussy about when they fruit. Nobody understands fully what triggers them.

 

Some mushrooms are only seen to sprout once every ten or twenty years, while others come up

 

reliably several times a year. It has something to do with the temperature and humidity and soil

 

acidity being ideal, but "ideal" is different for different fungi. So you might say that while the

 

millions of species of plants and animals all look different, and you can tell them apart fairly

 

easily, the millions of species of fungi all look almost identical to the naked eye (invisibly small

 

thread networks) but their fruits all look different. So when we study mushrooms, we are

 

studying the different fruiting bodies of different fungi, not the fungus itself. Many fungi never

 

make fruiting bodies big enough to see very well. For instance, the mold Penicillin is just a thin

 

layer of fuzz, and some species are much smaller than that. Most mushroom clubs, mushroom

 

books and mushroom pages like this one are mostly concerned with those fungi that make large

 

fruiting bodies that you are likely to notice (and care about). But there are many more thousands

 

of closely related species that go mostly unnoticed because no part of them ever gets big enough

 

to get your attention.

 

You will see tiny mushrooms almost all year round (e.g. Mycena) but the larger fleshier fruit

 

bodies only fruit during certain times of the year because they take a lot more energy to produce

 

and perhaps the fungus is being fussier about when to sprout, wanting to make sure the

 

conditions are right.

 

Some mushrooms are mycorrhizal, meaning that they live in a symbiotic relationship with trees

 

and other plants. Their mycelium actually grows in with the network of tree roots. Remember

 

back in grade school when you learned that plants make their own food using the chlorophyll

 


 

LESSON 10 DOCUMENT

 


 

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that makes them green to turn sunlight into sugar? Well, that's not the whole story. If the tree

 

only ate sugar it would be as unhealthy as you or I living on an all candy diet. It turns out the

 

mushroom's thin mycelium are very good at getting vitamins and minerals out of the soil, but

 

plant roots are not. So the mushroom takes some of the sugar made by the tree and in return it

 

gives the tree vitamins and minerals and everybody lives a happy life eating a balanced diet.

 

They did an experiment taking the fungi away from some pine saplings, and they got very sickly!

 

Mycorrhizal mushrooms will be mostly found growing out of the ground, although they have

 

been known to have their mycelium grow up and around a log and then grow the mushroom right

 

out of the log, so you can be fooled.

 

Other mushrooms are saprophytic, meaning they eat and decay dead plant matter like tree trunks,

 

branches, needles and leaves. So not only are mushrooms necessary for the health of trees but if

 

it weren't for mushrooms, fallen plant debris would not rot. Every forest would have duff so deep

 

you wouldn't be able to walk through it because you would sink in over your head. Some

 

mushrooms eat the cellulose in the plants (the white squishy part) leaving the brittle brown lignin

 

behind. These are called brown rot fungi. More difficult to do is to digest the lignin and

 

mushrooms are some of the only organisms to evolve enzymes to be able to digest lignin (you

 

cannot - it's one of many reasons that wood is not considered food). These leave the white

 

squishy cellulose behind, and are called white rot fungi. Many logs will have many different

 

mushrooms living in them, some eating the cellulose and some eating the lignin. Sometimes you

 

can find a piece of a rotted log that is mostly white and squishy or brown and brittle and you can

 

see which type of fungus predominates. One study of a single log in the forest that has been

 

going on for over 20 years has found over 200 mushrooms growing out of it so far... that's how

 

many different species are living there. But most astonishingly, new ones are still being

 

discovered every year. Saprophytic mushrooms often grow right out of the piece of wood that

 

they are eating, and can be recognized that way, but some saprophytic mushrooms just live off of

 

the nutrients in the soil and grow up in the grass, miles away from the nearest shrub or tree.

 

However, if there are trees nearby, there is no way to tell for sure if your mushroom sprouting out

 

of the ground is a saprophytic or mycorrhizal mushroom.

 

Saprophytic mushrooms can be mass produced easily and cheaply. They grow on piles of dead

 

things, so if get yourself a pile of dead things and sprinkle spores on it you'll grow mushrooms.

 


 

LESSON 10 DOCUMENT

 


 

8

 


 

But mycorrhizal mushrooms? They need to be attached to living, sometimes old growth trees, so

 

you can't grow them in captivity! They have to be hunted in the wild, and that's why they are so

 

expensive. The health food store is not trying to rip you off because they know you love morels

 

so much more than you love the button mushroom.It?s because the button mushroom is

 

saprophytic and the morel is mycorrhizal. (Well, mostly, except for the one that popped up

 

mysteriously in your planter that one time, but that's another story.) Every morel that you see in

 

the store had to be found by somebody walking through the forest. And truffles grow

 

underground, so they're even harder to find, so the price is going to be that much higher.

 

Bioremediation consists of different methods, and can be defined as the use of organisms to

 

break down harmful environmental contaminants to restore the environment to a healthier state.

 

Bioremediation utilizing fungi is called mycoremediation. Bioremediation using plants is called

 

phytoremediation. The process using bacteria is called bacterial bioremediation

 

The term "mushroom" refers only to the fruiting body, the visible reproductive organism of a

 

larger body of mycellium. Mycellium are an underground web of threads or hyphae that are the

 

main body of the organism.

 

Mushroom mycelium release enzymes that can break the chemical bonds of many

 

petrochemicals and toxins. Some mushrooms can also take in heavy metals?they must then be

 

harvested and treated as toxic waste. Different species work best for specific toxins.

 

A substrate, often wood chips, sterilized straw or cardboard, is inoculated with mushroom spawn

 

of a beneficial species. This inoculated substrate can also be used as a filter for flowing water.

 

Some species of fungi will attack pathogens and bacteria

 


 

 


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