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Lesson 10 document


















A fungus is a eukaryotic includes unicellular yeast and molds as well as


organism classified as kingdom specific to fungi.


Fungi are heterotrophs. They cannot make their own food. They digest heir food while


it?s still in the environment by secreting hydrolytic enzymes also called exozymes which break


down complex molecules into smaller organic compounds which they can absorb. Ban example


of fungi is mushroom.


Ascomycota?s is a division of of the kingdom fungi and subkingdom diary. Its members


are known as sac fungi. They are the largest phylum of fungi with several speies. Scomycetes are


beneficial in several ways especially in baking and brewing industry. Aspergillums orate is used


in the fermentation of rice to produce sake.


Other ascomycetes are harmful to humans. The majority fungi belong to the Phylum


Ascomycota, characterized by the formation of an ascs a sac-like structure contains haploid


ascospores. Many ascomycetes are of commercial importance. Some play a role, such as the


yeasts in baking, brewing, and wine fermentation, truffles and morels, which are held as


delicacies. Aspergillus oryzae used in the fermentation of rice to sake. Other ascomycetes


parasitize living things, For example, fungal pneumonia poses threat to AIDS patients who have


a compromisedimmunty. Ascomycetes infest and destroy crops, they also produce poisonous


secondary metabolites that make crops unfit. Filamentous ascomycetes produce hyphae divided


by perforated septa, streaming of cytoplasm from one cell to the other. Conidia and asci, which


are used respectively for asexual and sexual reproductions, are usually separated from the


vegetative hyphae by blocked (non-perforated) septa.


When a plant, animal, or insect dies, that plant, animal, or insect is broken into tiny


pieces and those pieces become part of the soil. This is called decomposition.


All beers are brewed using a process based on a simple formula. Key to the beer making process


is malted grain, depending on the region traditionally barley, wheat or sometimes rye.


Malt is made by allowing a grain to germinate, after which it is then dried in a kiln and


sometimes roasted. The germination process creates a number of enzymes, notably alfa-amylase


and beta-amylase, which will be used to convert the starch in the grain into sugar. Depending on









the amount of roasting, the malt will take on dark color and strongly influence the color and


flavor of the beer. Breweries buy malt and this is not a process that is done in-house.


The malt is crushed in a malt mill to break apart the grain kernels, increase their surface area, and


separate the smaller pieces from the husks. The resulting grist is mixed with heated water in a vat


called a "mash tun" for a process known as "mashing". During this process, natural enzymes


within the malt break down much of the starch into sugars which play a vital part in the


fermentation process. Mashing usually takes 1 to 2 hours, and during this time various


temperature rests (waiting periods) activate different enzymes depending upon the type of malt


being used, its modification level, and the desires of the brew master. The activity of these


enzymes converts the starches of the grains to doctrines and then to fermentable sugars such as




A mash rest at 104 ?F or 40 ?C activates beta-glucoses, which breaks down gummy beta-gleans


in the mash, making the sugars flow out more freely later in the process. A mash rest from 120 ?F


to 130 ?F (49 ?C to 55 ?C) activates various proteinases, which break down proteins that might


otherwise cause the beer to be hazy. But care is of the essence since the head on beer is also


composed primarily of proteins, so too aggressive a protein rest can result in a beer that cannot


hold a head. This rest is generally used only with under modified (i.e. under malted) malts which


are popular in Germany and the Czech Republic, or non-malted grains such as corn and rice,


which are widely used in North American beers. Finally, a mash rest temperature of 149 to 160


?F (65 to 71 ?C) is used to convert the starches in the malt to sugar, which is then usable by the


yeast later in the industrial brewing process. Doing the latter rest at the lower end of the range


produces more low-order sugars which are more fermentable by the yeast. This in turn creates a


beer lower in body and higher in alcohol. A rest closer to the higher end of the range creates


more higher-order sugars which are less fermentable by the yeast, so a fuller-bodied beer with

















Finally the mash temperature may be raised to 165 ?F to 170 ?F (about 75 ?C) (known as a


mahout) to deactivate enzymes. Additional water may be sprinkled on the grains to extract





























After the mashing, the mash is pumped to a later ton where the resulting liquid is strained from


the grains in a process known as loitering. The later ton generally contains a slotted "false


bottom" or other form of manifold which acts as a strainer allowing for the separation of the














At this point the liquid is known as worth. The worth is moved into a large tank known as a


"cooking ton" or kettle where it is boiled with hops and sometimes other ingredients such as


herbs or sugars. The boiling process serves to terminate enzymatic processes, precipitate


proteins, isomerize hop resins, concentrate and sterilize the worth. Hops add flavor, aroma and














At the end of the boil, the hopped worth settles to clarify using hop filters. SBM does not use the

















The worth is then moved into a temperature controlled cylindrical-conical "fermenter" where


yeast is added or "pitched" with it. The yeast converts the sugars from the malt into alcohol,


carbon dioxide and other components through a process called fermentation or glycolysis. After a


week to three weeks, the fresh (or "green") beer is cooled close to freezing temperature, yeast is


purged and the beer is allowed to "lager" or rest. After this conditioning for a week to several


months, the beer is often filtered to remove remaining yeast and particulates. The "bright beer" is




















There are four main families of beer styles determined by the variety of yeast used in their




After the grapes are sorted, they are ready to be de-stemmed and crushed. For many years, men


and women did this manually by stomping the grapes with their feet. Nowadays, most wine


makers perform this mechanically. Mechanical presses stomp or trod the grapes into what is


called must. Must is simply freshly pressed grape juice that contains the skins, seeds, and solids.


Mechanical pressing has brought tremendous sanitary gain as well as increased the longevity and


quality of the wine.









For white wine, the wine maker will quickly crush and press the grapes in order to separate the


juice from the skins, seeds, and solids. This is to prevent unwanted color and tannins from


leaching into the wine. Red wine, on the other hand, is left in contact with the skins to acquire


flavor, color, and additional tannins.


After crushing and pressing, fermentation comes into play. Must (or juice) can begin fermenting


naturally within 6-12 hours when aided with wild yeasts in the air. However, many wine makers


intervene and add a commercial cultured yeast to ensure consistency and predict the end result.


Fermentation continues until all of the sugar is converted into alcohol and dry wine is produced.


To create a sweet wine, wine makers will sometimes stop the process before all of the sugar is


converted. Fermentation can take anywhere from 10 days to one month or more.


Once fermentation is complete, clarification begins. Clarification is the process in which solids


such as dead yeast cells, tannins, and proteins are removed. Wine is transferred or ?racked? into a


different vessel such as an oak barrel or a stainless steel tank. Wine can then be clarified through


fining or filtration.


Fining occurs when substances are added to the wine to clarify it. For example, a wine maker


might add a substance such as clay that the unwanted particles will adhere to. This will force


them to the bottom of the tank. Filtration occurs by using a filter to capture the larger particles in


the wine. The clarified wine is then racked into another vessel and prepared for bottling or future




Something that is very important to take note of if you are going to try and identify a mushroom


is... did the mushroom sprout out of the ground, or is it growing out of a piece of wood? There


are two main ways that mushrooms get nutrition and figuring that out can be an important part of


identifying it.


First of all we have to talk about what a mushroom really is. Fungi are organisms that are


different from both plants and animals, although we used to think they were a kind of plant


(because they are attached to the ground and can't wander around freely). But it turns out that


genetically, fungi are closer to animals than they are to plants - we both have chitin in our cell









walls, for instance. The actual fungus grows as a network of threads called mycelium that


permeate the ground and can grow for miles, sort of like the roots of a plant but smaller than the


width of a human hair. When conditions are right, and the fungus feels it has a good chance at


reproducing, it will expend the energy to grow a mushroom (like a fruit or a flower that a plant


grows). Because of the vast difference in size between the invisible threads of the fungus itself


and its fruit, the mushroom, it almost seems analogous to a tree growing an apple that is the size


of the Empire State Building. Unlike plants that sprout flowers and fruit like clockwork every


year, not all fungi will grow mushrooms every year. Since the organism is invisibly tiny, you can


imagine that it takes a LOT of energy to create a "fruit" that is orders of magnitude more massive


than itself, so they are fussy about when they fruit. Nobody understands fully what triggers them.


Some mushrooms are only seen to sprout once every ten or twenty years, while others come up


reliably several times a year. It has something to do with the temperature and humidity and soil


acidity being ideal, but "ideal" is different for different fungi. So you might say that while the


millions of species of plants and animals all look different, and you can tell them apart fairly


easily, the millions of species of fungi all look almost identical to the naked eye (invisibly small


thread networks) but their fruits all look different. So when we study mushrooms, we are


studying the different fruiting bodies of different fungi, not the fungus itself. Many fungi never


make fruiting bodies big enough to see very well. For instance, the mold Penicillin is just a thin


layer of fuzz, and some species are much smaller than that. Most mushroom clubs, mushroom


books and mushroom pages like this one are mostly concerned with those fungi that make large


fruiting bodies that you are likely to notice (and care about). But there are many more thousands


of closely related species that go mostly unnoticed because no part of them ever gets big enough


to get your attention.


You will see tiny mushrooms almost all year round (e.g. Mycena) but the larger fleshier fruit


bodies only fruit during certain times of the year because they take a lot more energy to produce


and perhaps the fungus is being fussier about when to sprout, wanting to make sure the


conditions are right.


Some mushrooms are mycorrhizal, meaning that they live in a symbiotic relationship with trees


and other plants. Their mycelium actually grows in with the network of tree roots. Remember


back in grade school when you learned that plants make their own food using the chlorophyll









that makes them green to turn sunlight into sugar? Well, that's not the whole story. If the tree


only ate sugar it would be as unhealthy as you or I living on an all candy diet. It turns out the


mushroom's thin mycelium are very good at getting vitamins and minerals out of the soil, but


plant roots are not. So the mushroom takes some of the sugar made by the tree and in return it


gives the tree vitamins and minerals and everybody lives a happy life eating a balanced diet.


They did an experiment taking the fungi away from some pine saplings, and they got very sickly!


Mycorrhizal mushrooms will be mostly found growing out of the ground, although they have


been known to have their mycelium grow up and around a log and then grow the mushroom right


out of the log, so you can be fooled.


Other mushrooms are saprophytic, meaning they eat and decay dead plant matter like tree trunks,


branches, needles and leaves. So not only are mushrooms necessary for the health of trees but if


it weren't for mushrooms, fallen plant debris would not rot. Every forest would have duff so deep


you wouldn't be able to walk through it because you would sink in over your head. Some


mushrooms eat the cellulose in the plants (the white squishy part) leaving the brittle brown lignin


behind. These are called brown rot fungi. More difficult to do is to digest the lignin and


mushrooms are some of the only organisms to evolve enzymes to be able to digest lignin (you


cannot - it's one of many reasons that wood is not considered food). These leave the white


squishy cellulose behind, and are called white rot fungi. Many logs will have many different


mushrooms living in them, some eating the cellulose and some eating the lignin. Sometimes you


can find a piece of a rotted log that is mostly white and squishy or brown and brittle and you can


see which type of fungus predominates. One study of a single log in the forest that has been


going on for over 20 years has found over 200 mushrooms growing out of it so far... that's how


many different species are living there. But most astonishingly, new ones are still being


discovered every year. Saprophytic mushrooms often grow right out of the piece of wood that


they are eating, and can be recognized that way, but some saprophytic mushrooms just live off of


the nutrients in the soil and grow up in the grass, miles away from the nearest shrub or tree.


However, if there are trees nearby, there is no way to tell for sure if your mushroom sprouting out


of the ground is a saprophytic or mycorrhizal mushroom.


Saprophytic mushrooms can be mass produced easily and cheaply. They grow on piles of dead


things, so if get yourself a pile of dead things and sprinkle spores on it you'll grow mushrooms.









But mycorrhizal mushrooms? They need to be attached to living, sometimes old growth trees, so


you can't grow them in captivity! They have to be hunted in the wild, and that's why they are so


expensive. The health food store is not trying to rip you off because they know you love morels


so much more than you love the button mushroom.It?s because the button mushroom is


saprophytic and the morel is mycorrhizal. (Well, mostly, except for the one that popped up


mysteriously in your planter that one time, but that's another story.) Every morel that you see in


the store had to be found by somebody walking through the forest. And truffles grow


underground, so they're even harder to find, so the price is going to be that much higher.


Bioremediation consists of different methods, and can be defined as the use of organisms to


break down harmful environmental contaminants to restore the environment to a healthier state.


Bioremediation utilizing fungi is called mycoremediation. Bioremediation using plants is called


phytoremediation. The process using bacteria is called bacterial bioremediation


The term "mushroom" refers only to the fruiting body, the visible reproductive organism of a


larger body of mycellium. Mycellium are an underground web of threads or hyphae that are the


main body of the organism.


Mushroom mycelium release enzymes that can break the chemical bonds of many


petrochemicals and toxins. Some mushrooms can also take in heavy metals?they must then be


harvested and treated as toxic waste. Different species work best for specific toxins.


A substrate, often wood chips, sterilized straw or cardboard, is inoculated with mushroom spawn


of a beneficial species. This inoculated substrate can also be used as a filter for flowing water.


Some species of fungi will attack pathogens and bacteria




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Oct 15, 2019





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