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(Solved) Please fix any grammatical errors carefully and include the new


Please fix any grammatical errors carefully and include the new sources in the bibliography. I copied and pasted most of it so please use your own words. Its 30 pages long but you can cut it down to 15 pages.?


Running Head: LATINO MEDIA GAP

 


 

Latino Media Gap

 

Student?s Name

 

Institution

 


 

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LATINO MEDIA GAP

 

Introduction

 


 

Apparently, there is severs lack of representation in the media at all spectrums. From news on television,

 

lead roles in sitcoms or roles in movies where side or lead, lack of representation is hurting our image of the

 

new America in which we live in. Latinos makes up 17 % of the population yet only play lest than 2% of the

 

roles played on TV. Even when Latinos or Latinas do get roles on the screen, it is usually a stereotypical ?help?

 

service that they provide such as the maid, the harlat sexy Latina servicing the white actor, a criminal and police

 

officer or a drunkard. Even now in the Trump election, the motto of illegal immigrants are ruining our country is

 

being fervented all throughout the media. On prime time local news, only news of delinquency in Latino

 

neighborhoods is dished out for mainstream America to fear us instead of embracing all the good things we do

 

and have done in the United States of America. The first question will be why am I researching this topic? The

 

reason I am researching this topic is because I feel that the Latin stereotype has continued on from its inception

 

in the late 1800?s of the Monroe doctrine showing Latin American as backwards and jungle like and America

 

needed to flex its muscles to show the undisciplined childlike behavior of the populace and that they needed the

 

strong arm disciplinary actions, it has existed until this day even thought the Doctrine was over 167 years ago.

 

My topics of will consist of the following points along with several subplots per topic: When was the 1st

 

recorded Latino portrayal on TV/Print Media? What characters did they play on TV/Movie roles? Why did they

 

play those characters? What is the difference of the portrayal of the characters in the Early 1900?s to now? Has

 

there been progress or digression. My paper will consist of Latino representation in the media and how it

 

impacts the stereotypes in mainstream culture.

 

Who are Latinos?

 

Another important methodological consideration refers to the term ?Latino.? As there are different

 

definitions and these can affect statistical outcomes, the present study defines Latinos as persons born in the

 

United States who are of Latin American descent and/or who have been born in Latin America and have

 


 

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LATINO MEDIA GAP

 


 

immigrated to the United States. We identified Latino talent by surname, place of origin, self-identification, and

 

other corroborating data. Being that Spaniards are regularly confused with Latinos in media representations and

 

tend to play Hispanic-coded roles, we refer to their influence and presence but do not count them as Latinos for

 

statistical purposes. In addition, the report uses the terms Latino and Hispanic interchangeably

 

The Monroe Doctrine

 

The Monroe Doctrine was the first known overall depiction that was shown all across the world and it

 

continues until this day. Until we get to this part, let us look at what was the content of the Doctrine. James

 

Monroe was the fifth President of the United States, serving between 1817 and 1825. With the knowledge that

 

the British navy would defend Latin America from the Holy Alliance and France, President Monroe took the

 

occasion of his 1823 annual message to Congress to pronounce what would become known as the Monroe

 

Doctrine with the aim of ending the toleration of any further extension of European domination in the

 

Americans. In this period of time revolutions were sweeping across the landscape in Latin America and in

 

Europe. Russia, Prussia, Austria, and France joined an alliance to combat and/or eliminate any type of

 

revolutions in their surroundings. Spain lost a lot of its colonies in Latin America due to the revolutionary

 

actions of those respective countries (Latin America and the Monroe Doctrine < Westward Expansion and

 

Regional Differences < History 1994 < American History From Revolution To Reconstruction and beyond,

 

2016). Spain wanted those colonies back, but Britain along with the alliance wanted to defend the Latin

 

countries from Spain. The US intervened and came up with the doctrine to prevent future colonialism coming

 

from Europe. Any attempt against this doctrine, would be a direct declaration of war against the US. At glance,

 

it looked like a big brother, little brother relationship but in the back end it was a lone imperialist move by the

 

US in where they saw the immense profits from the huge amounts of resources available to them and the

 

political implications of dominion. Several newspaper articles showed images as the above with the negative

 


 

LATINO MEDIA GAP

 


 

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implications of Hispanics/Latinos being portrayed in a negative light. The helpless, needful, cannot do for

 

themselves image is still permeated today.

 


 

(Teddy Roosevelt and His ?Big Stick?, 2013)

 

The image of above shows US President?s depiction of Teddy Roosevelts ?Big Stick Policy? which was

 

a continuation of the Monroe Doctrine but much more authoritative. Roosevelt wanted America to be the

 

?world police? and protect their interests at all costs and show the military might it had at the time. Again, in the

 

picture above you see Teddy Rossevelt in a god like figure showing authority. On his bottom left, you see brown

 

skin people with sombreros looking uncivilized in need of ?New Diplomacy? and to the left are the European

 

governments complaining to the hegemonic American government that they have the right to collect the debts

 

from the third world Latin government (The Monroe Doctrine (1823). (2016).

 


 

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(Chery, 2015)

 

As you can see in this picture, the image of the American savior and the dependent Latin woman on her

 

knees begging for a savior is very preminant.

 

Latinos in the modern USA

 

Latinos are a powerful force in American society. Topping fifty-three million, Latinos constitute one of

 

the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States, comprising 17% of the population and over 20% of the

 

key 18?34 marketing demographic. Relative to the general population, Latinos also attend more movies and

 

listen to radio more frequently than do any other U.S. racial or ethnic group. In addition, their purchasing

 

power is steadily increasing. By 2015, Hispanic buying power is expected to reach $1.6 trillion. To put this

 

figure in perspective: if U.S Latinos were to found a nation, that economy would be the 14th largest in the

 

world.

 


 

LATINO MEDIA GAP

 


 

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Analysis of role of gender, race, and national origin in media employment opportunities

 

In the 1940s, the Latino population was close to 2%. At this point, Latino actors made up 0.9% of lead

 

appearances and 2% of all leads in the top ten movies. In the 1950s, Latinos were 2.8% of the population, 1.3%

 

of lead appearances, and 1.7% of total leads. From 2000 to 2013, among the ten films with the highest domestic

 

gross Figure 2: Percentage of Latino Actor Appearances in Top Ten Highest-Rated Scripted TV Shows

 

(Sources: IMDb and U.S. Census, 1950?2013). A comparison between Latino participation today and in earlier

 

periods reveals that, over the last decades, one finds very modest gains alongside stagnation and decline. Latino

 

lead role appearances decreased from 2.8% in the 2000s to 1.4% in the 2010s (see Figure 3). At the same time,

 

the percentage of Latino actors playing leading roles fell under 2%. The number of Latino supporting actors has

 

grown in absolute terms, but remains low and the gap has widened since the 1940s. Not unlike television?but

 

without the Desilu exception?Latinos have accounted for a small fraction of top ten movie producers, directors,

 

and writers. The last decades suggest that growth for Latinos in film will continue to be slow. From 2000 to

 

2009, Latinos accounted for 2.4% of directors, 0.8% of producers, and 0.6% of writers. In absolute terms, most

 

of these numbers went up in the 2010-2013 period: Latinos were 2.3% of directors, 2.2% of producers and 6%

 

of writers. The relative increase of writers in the top ten movies, however, should not be confused with a

 

significant expansion of opportunity for U.S. Latinos in the film industry. It is instead indicative of very slow

 

gains in U.S. Latino employment, combined with much faster rates of incorporation of star Latin American

 

talent, a generally misunderstood trend that we will discuss further below.

 

1. Role of gender

 

As noted in the opening pages, this study uses the term ?Latino? to encompass U.S. and Latin

 

American? born talent of all races and both genders. Yet, the routine count of Latino talent without further

 

qualification may mask more complex patterns of marginalization. These are important to note in order to better

 

address specific barriers to participation that may relate to gender, race, and national origin, among other

 


 

LATINO MEDIA GAP

 


 

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categories of social difference. For example, while the overall inclusion of Latinos is limited, when we consider

 

gender, we see a striking phenomenon: the near disappearance of the Latino lead actor concurrent with a relative

 

increase in the number of lead Latina actresses. This represents a significant change. Up until the 1990s, there

 

were considerably more male than female leads in both film and television. The current trend reached its highest

 

point in the 2010-2013, when Latino men did not play any leading roles in the top ten films but Latinas played

 

5.9% of female leads and 100% of Latino protagonists. In the 2000?2009, Afro-Latinos accounted for 50% of

 

Latino film leads. The greater presence of Latina actresses and characters is a welcome and significant change.

 

At the same time, this increase has not completely translated into greater visibility for Latina actresses or

 

storylines. On the one hand, most of the roles played by Latinas in the top ten movies were of animated or

 

fantasy characters in films such as Shrek Forever After (Cameron Diaz), How to Train Your Dragon (America

 

Ferrera) and Avatar (Zoe Salda?a). On the other hand, Diaz and Ferrera voiced ?white? characters, underscoring

 

that the long-term success of stars like Diaz has been partly rooted in that she is rarely identified as Latina. On

 

television, we see a similar gender trend (see Figure 5). In the 2000?2009, men disappeared from leading roles

 

while the number of women playing lead characters rose. Although currently there are no Latina leads in any of

 

the top ten television shows, Sofia Vergara plays a main character in the ensemble comedy Modern Family.

 

Significantly, Vergara?s success is part of a larger drift. In the supporting actor category, women have likewise

 

gained greater visibility than men. In the 2010-2013 seasons, Latinas constituted 11.8% of female supporting

 

roles while Latino men were only 4.9% of supporting male roles. In general, Latinas played 67% of all

 

supporting Latino characters. The current gender economy suggests that media decision makers view Latinas as

 

more culturally desirable than Latino men.

 

2. Race and national origin

 

Whereas the majority of Latino actors are considered ?Hispanic white? and there are few Afro-Latino

 

stars, from 2000 to 2013, Afro-Latino actors like Laz Alonso, Rosario Dawson, Jon Huertas, Zoe Salda?a, and

 


 

LATINO MEDIA GAP

 


 

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Ruben Santiago-Hudson became increasingly more prominent in both movies and/or on television. Measuring

 

this increase with precision poses some challenges. To date, there is no definitive census data regarding the

 

number of Afro-Latinos in 2000. Yet, even if we used the arguably higher 2010 census figures of 0.4% of total

 

population and 2.5% of the Latino segment as reference points, Afro-Latino actors still over?indexed in all

 

categories in both number of actors and frequency of appearances. In film, during the 2000?2009 period, they

 

accounted for 0.6% of total lead roles and supporting actor appearances as well as 20% of Latino lead

 

appearances and 20.8% of supporting actor appearances. This trend appears to be weakening slightly in recent

 

years. From 2010 to 2013, no Afro-Latino actor was cast in a leading role. The supporting actor category,

 

however, continues to over? index. In the last three years, Afro-Latinos comprised 0.5% of supporting actor

 

appearances and 16.7% of Latino supporting actor appearances (see Figure 7). On television, Afro-Latino actors

 

have yet to be cast in a leading role. But from 2000 to 2009, Afro-Latinos constituted 1.3% of all supporting

 

actor appearances and 16.7% of Latino supporting actor appearances. In the 2010?2013 seasons, this trend

 

marginally increased with Afro-Latinos continuing to represent 1.3% of supporting actors but 18.2% of Latino

 

supporting actor appearances. Latino indigenous actors are less salient. According to the 2010 census,

 

indigenous Latinos constitute 0.2% of the U.S. population and 1.4% of all Latinos. Although not measured by

 

the census, an even greater number of Latinos claim indigenous roots and/or are mestizos (of European and

 

Native descent). Yet, there are currently no indigenous Latino stars. Self-identified mestizo actors such as John

 

Leguizamo and Benjamin Bratt, however, are more visible. On film, from 2000 to 2009, mestizos accounted for

 

0% of Latino leads, 0.2% of all supporting actors, and 8.3% of Latino supporting actor appearances. In the

 

2010-2013 period, mestizos held no lead roles but were 0.3% of all supporting actors, and 8.3% of Latino

 

supporting appearances. On television, from 2000 to 2009, mestizos did not play any lead or supporting roles.

 

Still, In the 2010- 2013 period, they constituted 1.3% of supporting roles and 16.7% of Latino supporting actor

 

appearances. Arguably, the differences in incorporation of Afro-Latino and indigenous actors relate to how

 


 

LATINO MEDIA GAP

 


 

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Afro-Latinos can signify both Latino and black identities to key demographics. National origin also plays an

 

important role in acting opportunity but considerably more in film than on television. This is evident in that

 

some of the most popular ?Latin? movie stars of the last decade are not U.S. Latinos but Latin American or

 

Spanish-formed actors like Salma Hayek, Javier Bardem, Antonio Banderas, and Pen?lope Cruz. The Spanish

 

trend is particularly robust in the 2010-2013. Whereas Spaniards comprise less than 0.2% of the U.S. population

 

(and if counted as Hispanic, 1.4% of Latinos), in the top ten movies, they played 50% of Latino-coded leads and

 

27% of Latino supporting roles. In television, however, the vast majority of TV stars portraying Latino roles are

 

U.S.-raised Latinos. The most visible exception is Vergara. Differences in race and gender are also significant

 

behind the camera?in dissimilar ways. While Afro-Latinos over?index in some acting categories, from 2010 to

 

2013, no self-identified Afro-Latinos served as writers, directors, or producers. In the top ten TV shows, Latinas

 

constituted 0% of producers and 33% of all Latino directors. At the same time, they are over?indexed as writers

 

accounting for 75% of all Latino writers on television. In film, the situation is nearly the opposite: Latinas

 

represented Figure 8: Latino and Latin American Directors, Producers, and Writers, 2010?2013 (Source: IMDb)

 

33% of Latino producers but none of the Latino directors or writers. Equally relevant, Latin American national

 

origin correlates with behind the-camera opportunity in the movie industry. If from 2010 to 2013 Latin

 

Americans represented a small fraction of TV talent; in film, Latin American directors, writers, and producers

 

such as Alfonso Cuar?n (Gravity) and Guillermo del Toro (The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug) constituted

 

66% of all top ten Latino movie talent. Broken down by creative position, Latin American?born and formed

 

professionals, mostly from Mexico, made up 100% of directors, 75% of writers, and 50% of producers (see

 

Figure 8). NORTH OR SOUTH OF THE BORDER: WHY DOES IT MATTER? Latin American culture and

 

artists have always been a rich part of U.S. media history. Likewise, the distinction between U.S. Latino and

 

Latin American talent can be porous in the context of growing interconnectivity between the hemisphere?s

 

media industries. It can also be relative, as many Latin American professionals. If Latino participation seems

 


 

LATINO MEDIA GAP

 


 

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limited in entertainment, it is nearly non-existent in news. Our survey of 19 primetime shows revealed that of 22

 

anchors featured in top news shows, 20 or 90.9% were white and two (9%) were black??Van Jones of CNN?s

 

Crossfire and Al Sharpton of MSNBC?s Politics Nation. No anchor was Latino. Among the 21 top news

 

executive producers, all were white, including three women. Of the eight shows that posted information on their

 

websites regarding their producing staff, all of which were on CBS, NBC, and MSNBC, only two of 114

 

producers, or 1.8%, were Latino (see Figure 9). These were Andres Triay of CBS News with Scott Pelley, and

 

Mario Garcia of NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams. Fox, CNN, and ABC did not provide information in

 

their sites nor did they respond to our queries. Using alternative sources, we also identified that CNN?s

 

Anderson Cooper 360 has had at least one Latino producer on staff in the past, David Puente. The lack of

 

Latinos applies to news stories as well: A study by the National Association of Hispanic Journalists focusing on

 

the 1995?2004 period found that ?in nine of 10 years, Latino stories made up less than 1 percent of all network

 

news stories.?7 Of these, 66% focused on crime or illegal immigration (see Figure 10). Since 2004, the first

 

trend has actually worsened: a forthcoming study by scholar Federico Subervi on news story topics from 2008

 

to 2012 found that the percentage of general market TV network news stories highlighting Latinos declined

 

from 1% in 2008 to 0.6% in 2012.

 

The Latino media gap: How Latinos are portrayed in the American media industry

 

Latinos are not only avid media consumers; they have made important contributions to the film and

 

television industries, and currently over-index as digital communicators and online content creators. Moreover,

 

they are watchful of their image: when programs or films are perceived to have anti-Latino content, advocacy

 

groups and consumers target studios and networks with increasingly effective campaigns. Simultaneously,

 

programs and movies featuring compelling Latino talent and storylines are rewarded with high ratings and

 

revenue. Yet, with few exceptions, Latino participation in mainstream English-language media is stunningly

 

low. A review of the top movies and television programs reveals that there is a narrower range of stories and

 


 

LATINO MEDIA GAP

 


 

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roles, and fewer Latino lead actors in the entertainment industry today, than there were seventy years ago.

 

Likewise, whereas the Latino population grew more than 43% from 2000 to 2010, the rate of media

 

participation?behind and in front of the camera, and across all genres and formats?stayed stagnant or grew

 

only slightly, at times proportionally declining even further

 

When Latinos are visible, they tend to be portrayed through decades-old stereotypes as criminals, law

 

enforcers, cheap labor, and hyper-sexualized beings. To visualize the magnitude of Latino media exclusion, we

 

can imagine that references to the states of California (38 million people), Illinois (12.8 million) and Rhode

 

Island (1 million), New York (19.6 million), Florida (19.5 million), and Pennsylvania (12.7 million) are

 

eliminated from American media culture. In rare case that audiences saw or heard anything about, say,

 

California or Illinois, we would be shown bikini-clad women and gangsters. In this report, we have named this

 

conundrum the Latino media gap: as Latino consumer power grows, relative Latino media presence shrinks.

 

Although the modest increase in numbers and the success of a handful of stars like Jennifer Lopez is

 

noteworthy, the rate of incorporation is out of step with the massive demographic changes sweeping the country.

 

The consequences of this gap are far-reaching.

 

For instance, the Latino Media Gap report makes eight principal findings on the gap between Latino

 

presence and media inclusion in the U.S. today. First of all, Latino participation in programming and movies is

 

extremely limited. In general, Latino media participation has modestly increased since the 1940s. But, per

 

capita, it is the same or lower than it was in prior decades in major categories. For example, in the 1950s,

 

Latinos were on average 2.8% of the U.S. population. In the top ten scripted shows, however, Latinos were

 

3.9% of lead actor appearances and 1.5% of all lead roles; in the top ten movies, Latinos made up 1.3% of lead

 

appearances and played 1.7% of lead roles. Yet, in 2013, despite being 17% of the population, Latinos

 

comprised none of the lead actors among the top ten movies and scripted network TV shows.

 


 

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Latino men have disappeared as leading actors; though the percentage of Latinas and Afro-Latino actors

 

is rising. Until the 1990s, there were considerably more Latino male leads than Latina leads in TV shows and

 

films. This trend has significantly reversed. In the 2010?2013, Latino men did not perform any leading roles in

 

the top ten films and TV shows, and constituted fewer than 3% of supporting television and film actor

 

appearances. Latinas suggests persistent and unchecked job discrimination in a major U.S. industry. The

 

relegation of Latinos similarly deprives media consumers of innovative perspectives at a moment of rapid

 

industry and demographic change. Equally important, as entertainment and news reports often carry more

 

weight than do other forms of communication, the limited and stereotypical nature of existing stories about

 

Latinos skews the public?s perception of U.S. society. It also sanctions hostility toward the country?s largest

 

minority, which has already become the majority in many cities, including the media capitals of Miami and Los

 

Angeles.

 

The Latino media gap examines the state of Latino participation in mainstream media and the Internet

 

with the goal of identifying challenges and opportunities to promote an inclusive media landscape. One of the

 

most comprehensive reports on Latinos and U.S. media provide an overview of critical issues, namely rates of

 

media participation, stereotyping, ownership, leadership, diversity policies, economic impact of diversity,

 

Latino advocacy, and Latino innovation that plays important role in Latino media gap. The first three sections

 

focus on the stagnation and proportional decline of Latino participation in media since 1940 while noting new

 

trends in the incorporation of women and Afro-Latinos. The last four sections emphasize approaches, initiatives,

 

and individuals that are both expanding opportunity for Latinos in media and transforming the industries.

 

The Latino media gap has also narrowed. Presently, 36.6% of Latino TV character appearances are in

 

law enforcement and a whopping 44.7% of Latino-coded television characters are either unaccredited or

 

unnamed. Equally important, 69% of iconic media maids in film and television since 1996 are Latina. Stories

 

about Latinos constitute less than 1% of news media coverage, and the majority of these stories feature Latinos

 


 

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LATINO MEDIA GAP

 

as lawbreakers. Moreover, Latino participation in front and behind the camera is extraordinarily low: As of

 


 

2013, there were no Latino anchors or executive producers in any of the nation?s top news programs. According

 

to available data, only 1.8% of news producers are Latinos. When possible, Latino media consumers reward

 

shows and films that feature compelling Latino talent and storylines with high ratings and revenue. This is

 

evident in the success of the Lifetime television show Devious Maids, the radio program Cohen and Martinez

 

on NPR, and the Universal Studios? movie franchise The Fast and the Furious. Latinos also reject and organize

 

against extreme stereotypical representations, as in the case of the campaigns against the canceled scripted

 

shows Rob and Work It, and the news program Lou Dobbs Tonight.

 

Latino consumer pressure is increasingly effective in bringing about change by using the Internet and

 

social media. From 1968 to 1998, 63% of Latino media campaigns aimed at television shows, advertisements,

 

or movies prevailed in all or part of their goals. After 1998, this figure jumped to 86%. Even further, the average

 

length of time required to obtain a successful also did not play any television leads. Still, they were 4.6% of all

 

female film lead appearances and 9.5% of all TV supporting female appearances. On television, Latinas

 

accounted for 67% of Latino supporting roles. In addition, while there were few Afro-Latino stars in prior eras,

 

the percentage of prominent Afro-Latino actors has significantly increased. From 2010 to 2013, Afro-Latino

 

performers represented 18.2% of Latino film actors and 16.7% of Latino TV actors, although they were

 

generally confined to supporting roles in both media.

 

As Latinos...

 


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