Question Details

(Solved) A clothing company uses sweatshop labor to manufacture clothing

A clothing company uses sweatshop labor to manufacture clothing products that contribute to low pricing, which is a consumer want.

Many companies have engaged in sweatshop labor. Did the clothing company engage in unethical labor practices by utilizing sweatshop labor?

Research?sweatshop labor.

Write?a paper of no more than 750 words to present your position on sweatshop labor and provide justification. Include the following:

  • How consumer demands affect a company's business decision
  • How different ethical perspectives guide ethical decision making
  • How a company influences their ethical environment

Format?your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Required: USE THE APA TEMPLATE PAPER!

REQUIRED: Use a minimum of two credible scholarly sources to support your work. Cite the work of others. List the sources on a properly formatted APA style reference page (see APA template and sample paper).




An APA running head is not


needed for undergraduate or


master?s courses per the


University Writing and Style


Guidelines. If you are a student


in a doctoral program, or


otherwise require a running


head in your paper, consult


the doctoral APA Sample


Paper in the CWE>Tutorials


and Guides>Doctoral Writing





Pagination: Use the


header feature in


Microsoft? Word to set


the page number (see


Appendix A).



Writing Style and Mechanics


Student Name






Instructor Name



The title: Use upper and lower case


letters, centered between the left and


right margins, and positioned on the


upper half of the page. Use black, 12point Times New Roman font


throughout. Arial and Courier font


types are acceptable.



All lines are double-spaced throughout


the entire document. Use black, 12-point


Times New Roman font throughout the


document. Arial and Courier font types


are acceptable.



This APA Sample Paper is intended for undergraduate and master?s level students.


The University of Phoenix APA sample papers represent the consensus of key academic officials within the University. This particular


sample reflects expectations outlined in the University of Phoenix Writing and Style Guidelines for undergraduate and master?s courses,


which correspond with the University?s preferred style guide for most programs: The Publication Manual of the American Psychological


Association, Sixth Edition. If your course materials direct you to follow MLA style, please see the MLA Sample Paper in the Center for


Writing Excellence (CWE)>Tutorials and Guides>MLA Information.


This sample paper is offered as a concise tool to help students with style, but it is not a definitive or binding representation of format for


all courses. The CWE provides many tools to help students write and format effective papers; however, the faculty member determines


the assignment grade in the course.



Abstract: Typically, an abstract is required only for


publication. If your assignment instructions indicate


a requirement to use an abstract, a sample can be


found in the CWE>Tutorials and Guides.



Center for Writing Excellence


? 2014 Apollo Group, Inc. All rights reserved.



Writing Style and Mechanics


Indent the


first line of






using the


tab key,


set at five


to seven


spaces or







Use the paper


title above your




centered not








The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) began as a






require a




number or







journal article in 1929. The APA reported results from a meeting of scholars ?to establish a


simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify the many components of scientific


writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension? (APA, 2010, p. xiii). Today, the


Publication Manual is in its sixth edition and the APA style described in it is a widely



Use one


or two




after a


period at


the end of






but be




with usage









recognized standard for scholarly or professional writing in the social sciences. Although the


style guide is designed to prepare manuscripts for publication, many universities and health care


journals have adopted its use as a guide to achieve uniformity and consistency (Cuddy, 2002).


Writing in the style prescribed by the Publication Manual can be a daunting experience for


students. As with any new skill, ?practice makes perfect? (S. Proofreader, personal


communication, June 28, 2004). Points of APA style most often used by undergraduate and







citation: No


need to include


on the reference





graduate students are listed below. However, keep in mind that this sample paper is a guide and


should not be considered as a replacement for the Publication Manual.


Format Considerations



Level one heading:


Centered, bolded, upper


and lower case letters.





Some commonly used rules and formats from the sixth edition of the Publication Manual


are listed below. Please note, however, that some assignments may require unique formatting,
















and lower







and you should consult your syllabus for clarification.


Correct Margins


Margins are one inch on all sides. This rule is broken only to avoid placing a lone


heading on the last line of the page or a single line of text on the top of the next page.



Margins should be


one inch on all


sides of the









ensure that a


line is not tab






centering a


heading so


as not to


appear off







Page Header


The page header contains the page number aligned with the right margin. The automatic


header function in Microsoft? Word should be used to place the page numbers consecutively in


the paper (see Appendix A). Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on) are used to number each page,


beginning with 1 on the title page.


Document Headings


Paragraph headings should be used in long documents to organize the essay, to break it


up into readable portions, and to make it easy for readers to locate information. Using headings


in a short document before every paragraph can make the writing appear choppy, and the paper


may not flow smoothly from point to point. Use paragraph headings if your document is longer


than three or four pages or if the assignment instructions require paragraph headings.


Reference Page


Hanging indentation is used for the reference page. The proper format can be set in


Microsoft? Word (see Appendix B). Creating the hanging indentation by using the tab key or


space bar will not protect the formatting if changes are made to the reference page at a later time.


The reference page is alphabetized by author or by title of the work when no author is listed, and


each entry contains the date of publication in parentheses directly after the author?s name. The


title, the place of publication, and the name of the publisher follow the date of publication for a


book entry. The proliferation of electronic materials has prompted APA to create formats


designed specifically for Internet and web-based written material. Visit the APA website at for additional information about formatting electronic references. You


will also find frequently asked questions and helpful free tutorials about using APA style.


The place of publication in a reference should include city and state using two letter postal abbreviation for the state. If the


location is outside of the U.S., use the city and country. Examples: New York, NY. London, England.





Only references that have been cited in the paper are listed on the reference page.


Personal communications are cited in the text but do not appear on the reference page because


the reader cannot retrieve them. Additional reference examples are available in the Reference


and Citation Examples tutorial in the Center for Writing Excellence (CWE) at Tutorials and




In-Text Citations














only the






period at


the end,











Direct quotations. Direct quotations must mirror the original source word for word, even


if errors are contained in the original text. To alert the reader that errors are part of the original


material, the word [sic], enclosed in brackets and italicized, must follow the erroneous material.


The source of the quotation must be cited. The format of direct quotations may vary with the


placement of the quoted material in the sentence. The following is an example of how you may


use a direct quotation from a website with an author: ?Diversity is emerging as one of the most


serious issues in the workplace today, yet most employers are not prepared to deal with it?


(Copeland, 2003, Erroneous Assumptions, para. 1). The author?s last name, the year of


publication, the website title or section title, and the paragraph number, when no page number is


available, are included in the citation.


The following is an example of how one may use a direct quotation from a book with one





with a






One space




the p. and



















in longer








in master?s









author: Venes (2001) stated, ?The types of influenza doctors must prepare for fall into three


categories? (p. 106). If the author?s name is stated prior to the quotation, include the date of


publication (in parentheses) after the author?s name, and follow the quotation with the page or


paragraph number. For a work with two authors, use both authors? last names for every citation.


If the source has three or more authors but fewer than six authors, list all authors in the first


citation, and use the first author?s last name and the words et al. (without italics) for the rest of







is the heading


of a section


within the






?Managing a






Using the


heading of a


section for an


online article


citation will


help your


reader quickly


locate the


content in the









the citations. If the source has more than six authors, you may use the first author?s last name and


the words et al. (without italics) for every citation (APA, 2010, p. 175). The following example


from the Publication Manual (2010, p. 42) shows a citation from a work with more than six


authors using the first author: (Good et al., 2001). Refer to the Reference and Citation Examples


tutorial in the CWE at Tutorials and Guides for more examples of in-text citations.


Quotations that contain fewer than 40 words are enclosed in double quotation marks


within the text. Use single quotation marks for quotations contained within a direct quotation.


Quotations of 40 words or more are indented in a block format without quotation marks. Use


double quotation marks to indicate a quotation within the block quotation. The block quotation is


started on a new line, and it is indented five to seven spaces or one-half inch. A sample block


quotation appears on page 7 of this document.


Paraphrased or summarized material. Paraphrasing or summarizing allows the writer


Write out


and with








within the


text. Use






(&) when


they are




within a





to present someone else?s ideas or intellectual property and to supply proper credit to the original


author or authors (Lawton, Cousineau, & Hillard, 2001). When an author is paraphrased or


summarized, the source must be cited in the text. If a source is mentioned more than once in a


paragraph, a citation must be included each time. Page or paragraph numbers are not required for


paraphrased material, but the Publication Manual recommends that writers include a page or


paragraph number to help the reader easily locate the information (APA, 2010, p. 171). If a


writer were to paraphrase information from an article located in an online database, the writer


would format the citation as follows: Daniels (2004) included Darden Restaurants on her list of


the 50 best companies for minorities. Here is an example where the author is not mentioned


within the text: A list of companies has been singled out as best for minority employees (Daniels,


2004). Both examples include the author?s last name and the date of publication. If the author?s





name is not provided with the paraphrased text, it must be included in the citation. Refer to the


Reference and Citation Examples in the CWE at Tutorials and Guides for examples of citing


paraphrased material.


Deciding to summarize, to paraphrase, or to provide a direct quotation is an important


question one must consider when using sources in an academic paper. Summarizing and


paraphrasing both consist of sharing a source author?s ideas by phrasing them in one?s own


words. A writer should summarize or paraphrase source material when it is important to capture


the basic idea but when the author?s exact words are not essential to the paper. Conversely, a


writer should quote directly when the source verbiage is crucial and stating it any other way


would cause it to lose its meaning. Usually writers will quote authors who are experts in their


field and whose ideas support their own. However, excessive use of direct quotations should be


avoided. Writers are encouraged to paraphrase when doing so will not change the meaning or the


impact of a source (Ede, 2011).


Plagiarism. Plagiarism constitutes a serious academic concern. According to Lawton,


Cousineau, and Hillard (2001), ?Academic communities demand that writers credit others for




source and




If the




source does


not have






use the




para. for the







their work and that the source of their material clearly be acknowledged? (para. 6). Internet


access has resulted in an increase in plagiarism. McCabe noted (as cited in Sterngold, 2004),


41% of students said they engaged in cut-and-paste plagiarism from online sources. The


sentences and phrases used in one?s paper must be original or cited and referenced accordingly.


Although it may be easier for a writer to use someone else?s words, doing so discredits the


writer. When in doubt, cite. See the Plagiarism Guide in the CWE at Tutorials and Guides for


more information about avoiding plagiarism and about properly citing intellectual property.



Headings should not appear at the end of a page. For the sake of readability, move the


heading to the top of the next page (see Other Format Issues on page 7). This ensures


that the intended content of the following body text is clear.







Also called an




source. List


only primary


source in


reference list,


and cite




source author


only within the






sources are


not ideal in




writing and


should be







Other Format Issues


The preferred typeface for APA style is black, 12-point Times New Roman (APA, 2010).


However, Arial and Courier font types are acceptable. Avoid using any software settings that


reduce spacing between words or letters or that add spacing between paragraphs. Use doublespacing throughout the document. You may use one space or two spaces after sentence-ending


punctuation in the body of your essay, but use consistent spacing at the end of a sentence


throughout your essay.


Although the Publication Manual (2010) requires an abstract to precede the text, an


abstract is not used in most student papers. Some assignments may require an abstract if students


are submitting lengthy papers or project proposals. In those cases, the direction to submit an


abstract will be in the assignment guidelines. A sample abstract can be found in the CWE at


Tutorials and Guides.


Writing Mechanics


Correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, and sentence structure?in addition to


formatting?are essential components of scholarly writing. Strunk (1918/1999) emphasized the


importance of being succinct:




quotation (40


or more




Indent to the


tab margin


and do not






marks. The


in-text citation


occurs outside


of the




that ends the





Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a


paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no


unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires not that the writer


make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his subjects only in


outline, but that every word tell. (para. 1)







In addition to the provision of a standardized format for scientific writing, the Publication


Manual (2010) emphasizes the importance of proper grammar. Important basic grammar


principles are listed below. For further information, refer to Step-by-Step Grammar Review in


the CWE. The Step-by-Step Grammar Review provides individualized practice with grammar


and punctuation.


Subject and verb agreement. A singular noun requires a singular verb and a plural noun


requires a plural verb (APA, 2010). Words that intervene between the noun and the verb do not


change this basic rule.


Noun and pronoun agreement. When writers use a singular noun, they must also use a


singular pronoun. To avoid using awkward combined forms such as he/she or (s)he, writers may


reword the sentence and use a plural noun and a plural pronoun to eliminate the problem of


nouns and pronouns that do not agree. For example, the sentence ?A student applying for a job


must carefully proofread his/her application? may be reworded to read, ?Students applying for


jobs must carefully proofread their applications.? Use of plural forms also helps writers reduce


bias, avoid stereotypes, and refrain from using both singular and plural in the same sentence or




Passive voice. Passive voice obscures the actor in this sentence: ?The house was


painted,? because it omits who applied the paint. In contrast, the same sentence written in active


voice would be something such as this: ?Our company painted the house.? The passive voice,


which is a form of ?be? (is, was, were, will be, have been, etc.) and a participle (painted, etc.), is


useful when the actor's identity is not important to the sentence or context. Overuse of the


passive voice causes the document to read similarly to an instructional manual, dry and





monotonous. According to Sigel (2009), it weakens the essay?s argument and prevents clear and


concise writing. Occasional use of the passive voice is acceptable, but documents written


primarily in the active voice are more enjoyable and more persuasive to read (Sigel, 2009).


Punctuation. Correct punctuation establishes the rhythm and readability of sentences.


Use only one space after commas, colons, and semicolons. Use one or two spaces after a period


at the end of a sentence (be consistent with use). When a hyphen or a dash is used, no space


appears before or after the hyphen or dash (APA, 2010). In academic writing, use a comma to


separate all words in a series of three or more, as in the following example: Tasks included


reading, writing, and analyzing the information in the text. Correct use of commas and


semicolons can be challenging for students. Writers should consider using a proofreading tool,


such as WritePoint?, to aid in checking proper comma use.


Capitalization. Capitalization is used to designate a proper noun or trade name as well as


major words in titles and in headings. Instances where capitalization is not used include laws,


theories, models, or hypotheses, such as ethical decision-making models and names of conditions


or groups in an experiment, such as experimental or control groups (APA, 2010). A common


error in capitalization is its use with the name of a job title or department. An example is human


resources, which is not capitalized, versus the specific title of ACME Human Resources


Department, which is capitalized.


Seriation (elements written in a series). Items contained in a list help to clarify the


point being made or help to clarify components of a subject. Bullets may be used for a list in


academic writing according to APA standards (2010). To show seriation of separate paragraphs,


however, number each paragraph with an Arabic numeral followed by a period that is not





enclosed in or followed by parentheses. To show seriation within a paragraph or a sentence, use


lowercase letters in parentheses (see Appendix C).


Numbers. Spell out numbers one through nine that appear in the body text. Use Arabic


numerals to express numbers 10 and above. Exceptions to this rule are discussed in the Grammar


and Writing Guides in the Center for Writing at Tutorials and Guides. Once in the Grammar and


Writing Guides, go to Grammar Mechanics and select Number Usage for a list of the exceptions.


If you have the Publication Manual, sixth edition (2010), refer to pages 111-114 for detailed


information about number usage.


Third person versus first person. Person refers to the point of view or the source of the


writer?s opinions. Use third person (he, she, or they) in academic writing. When referring to


yourself, however, stating ?The writer instructed the patients? is ambiguous and may give the


impression that you did not participate. Instead, use a first person personal pronoun: ?I instructed


the patients.? For the most part, reference to self in first person should be limited to personal


reflection or opinion papers.





Always include a conclusion that summarizes


the main points of the paper.



By understanding mechanics and usage requirements and by referencing materials


appropriately with in-text citations and reference entries, you will clearly communicate the


content of your work. Use the information included in this paper to develop effective academic


papers. You are also encouraged to refer to the resources in the CWE and the style information


from for additional information about academic writing.



Reference Page: Use a separate page to list the


references and double-space the entire page. The word


References is upper and lower case, centered, not


bolded, at the top of the page.








American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological


Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.


Copeland, L. (2006). Managing a multicultural workforce. California Job Journal. Retrieved













Cuddy, C. M. (2002). Demystifying APA style. Orthopaedic Nursing, 21(5), 35-42. Retrieved




Daniels, C. (2004, June 28). 50 Best companies for minorities. Fortune, 149(13), 136146. Retrieved from



A print




of a





A book with


a corporate


author and


an edition





Italicize the


titles of


books and













Ede, L. (2001). The academic writer (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Bedford/St. Martin?s.


Lawton, K. A., Cousineau, L., & Hillard, V. E. (2001). Plagiarism: Its nature and consequences.


Retrieved from Duke University Guide to Library Research website:



A source


available on


a university


program or






Sigel, T. (2009). How passive voice weakens your scholarly argument. Journal of Management


Development, 28(5), 478-480. doi:10.1108/02621710910955994


Sterngold, A. (2004). Confronting plagiarism: How conventional teaching invites cybercheating. Change, 36(3), 16. Retrieved from






version of a







Strunk, W., Jr. (1999). Elementary principles of composition: Omit needless words. In The


elements of style. Retrieved from


(Original work published 1918)


Venes, D. (2001). Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary (19th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A.





A source


with a













Appendix A: Header Feature in Microsoft? Word


Identify each page with the page number placed at the right margin. Do not use your


name to identify each page. Be sure the font type and size are the same in the header as that used


throughout the document. To create a correct header with an automatic page number in Word,


use the following guidelines.


Word 2007, 2010, and 2013


1. Click on the Insert tab.


2. Select the Header icon.


3. Choose the Blank header tab from the drop-down menu.


4. Tab to the right margin, and click the Page Number icon.


5. Place the cursor over Current Position. A drop-down menu should appear.


6. Select the Plain Number option. A number will appear at the right margin of your




7. Choose Close Header and Footer (the red X at the far right on the menu). Your cursor


then appears at the beginning of the document, and automatic page numbers should be


visible as you type each new page.


Word 2003


1. Select the View menu on the toolbar.


2. Select Header and Footer.


3. Place the cursor in the Header box and select the right justification button on the toolbar


so that the cursor in the Header box moves to the right.





4. Use the automatic function for inserting the page number as illustrated in this picture by


selecting the first button with the # symbol.



5. Select Close. The header is complete.





Appendix B: Creating a Hanging Indent in Microsoft? Word


To create a hanging indent for your references page in Word, use the following guidelines.


Word 2007, 2010, and 2013


1. Select the text that requires a hanging indent or create a hanging indent at the top of the


references page before typing the text.


2. From the Home menu, click on the Paragraph command seen below. This will bring up


the Indents and Spacing tab.


3. Under Indentation in the Special box, click on Hanging and select OK.





Word 2003


1. Select the text that requires a hanging indent or create a hanging indent at the top of the


references page before typing the text.


2. From the Format menu, select the Paragraph command.


3. In the Special list under Indentation, select Hanging and select OK...


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Oct 15, 2019





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