First, load the dataset into R Commander. Open R Console and:
- Load R Commander with syntax library(Rcmdr)
- Using the drop down menu, go to Data -> Import Data -> from SPSS dataset… -> OK -> Find data -> Open
- Click on View Data and answer the following two questions.
1. How many variables are in this dataset?
2. How many people, or participants, are in this dataset?
3. Next, we'll create a simple frequency table. Go to Statistics -> Summaries -> Frequency Distributions. Select your categorical variables (hold CTRL to select more than one) and select OK. Fill in the blanks for this APA style write up of results.
A total of 10 participants completed the study(N = ). The majority (60%) were male. Further, most participants(n = ) were Sophomores, comprising % of the total sample.
4. Histograms are often used to visualize the spread of the data. This is a visual way to assess normality. Get a histogram of your continuous variable, final score, using the following menu commands: Graphs -> Histogram. Your histogram will show up in the R Console, not R Commander. Upload a screenshot of this figure, or save the image and upload that.
5. Bar graphs are an excellent way to visual categorical, or group, data. Get a bar graph of your categorical variable Class Status using menu commands Graphs -> Bar Graph. Take a screenshot or save the image and upload here.
6. We'll use box and whisker plots frequently to assess for outliers in continuous variables. Please get a box plot of your continuous variable, final score, using the menu commands Graphs -> Boxplot. Upload the image here.
7. Look at your boxplot of final scores. You'll notice a numbered circle well below the box and whiskers. What is this score called?
8. With the basics covered, you can take a more complicated look at your data. Which class level (freshmen, sophomore, junior, senior) had the highest final score average? To find out, follow these steps:
- Go to Statistics -> Summaries -> Table of Statistics...
- Select class_status as your Factor, make sure that Mean is selected, and click OK.
Which class has the highest final exam score? Freshman, Junior, Senior, or Sophomore?
Kraha K300 1
Troubleshooting R Method 1: Installing Packages as a group
You should have been able to successfully install the base R program. You’ll have an icon on
your desktop (The letter R) that you can double click (or similar, depending on computer and
settings) to open the program. Once open, you should see this: 1. The most common error that folks see when trying to load R commander is that a certain
package is missing (remember, packages are like apps—you have to install them first
before you can run them). The easiest way to do this is to download a set of library files
and copy it into your library file.
2. First, find your library location. It should be C:RRlibrary. Open your file folder and
follow this path. You can also copy and paste into the address bar. If you’re able to find
this folder, keep it open and skip to step 4. If not, continue with step 3.
3. In the R Console, type the code below to find your library destination folder.
This code will bring up the storage location for your libraries—follow this path to open the
library folder. Kraha K300 2 4. Download this .zip file. Once downloaded, you’ll need to unzip it—most modern PC’s
allow you to double click the folder and it will automatically unzip. Go into the library
folder where all packages are listed, and select and copy all (use CTRL + A to select all,
CTRL + C to copy all selected). 5. Go to the file where your packages are installed—it should be C:RR, but see step 3
above if you aren’t sure. Click in this folder, and use CTRL + P to paste. This is a big
file, so it may take a moment to copy over.
6. Launch R Console, and use library(Rcmdr) to load to R Commander. You should get the
popup below, and can continue to load a dataset (see your main homework document). Kraha K300 3 Method Two (continuing if One didn’t work): Installing packages individually
7. When you try to load R Commander, you’re probably getting an error saying that certain
packages aren’t installed. The error will say something like the following(emphasis and
color added by me for easier explanation):
Error in library(Rcmdr) : there is no package called ‘Rcmdr’
The red part of the text repeats back the syntax (or code) that you typed. R Syntax is a type of
computer languages, meaning that text must exactly match the formatting I’ve given you. If this
matches the correct syntax in spelling, punctuation, and case, you can move on to consider the
green text. If not, fix your typing to exactly match mine and try again.
The error code above is telling you that there is no package called Rcmdr installed—you’ll need
to install it. Depending on which packages you’re missing, you’ll have a different package
named. No matter which package you’re missing, the process is the same. Follow the steps
below to individually install packages.
1. Follow the steps below to individually install packages. First, open the R console.
a. Go to Packages -> Install Packages. A box will pop up asking you for your
download location—choose the location nearest you.
b. Once you’ve chosen your download location, you’ll see a very large list of
available packages. These are listed in alphabetical order, and you can select
multiple packages at once by holding CTRL. Scroll down and select Rcmdr, then
click OK. c. Once the package installs, go back to your prompt and type library(Rcmdr) to
load R Commander. You might get another error code that names another
package—repeat the steps above to install the package, and try again until R
Commander loads. Kraha K300 4
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