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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT STUDENT WORKBOOK Southwood School: A Case Study in Training and Development By Fiona L. Robson Project Team Author: Fiona L....


Read the case study, "Southwood School: A Case Study in Training and Development," from the Student Workbook (look for it under Course Documents tab on left) and then answer the following 5 questions. I would expect that your answers are thoughtful and college level writing. Be sure to cut and past the questions below into your submission.

1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the training sessions being led by an external consultant.



2. How would you deal with a participant with a negative attitude toward the training?



3. Would you require any information about your participation before the training session?



4. How can the trainer ensure skills transfer so employees apply the training to the workplace?



5. How can the proposed training program be adapted to meet different learning styles?

6. How does an organization's culture affect learning and development and why is OC important to overall success?


TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT STUDENT WORKBOOK Southwood School: A Case Study

 

in Training and Development

 

By Fiona L. Robson Project Team

 

Author: Fiona L. Robson SHRM project contributors: Bill Schaefer, SPHR

 

Nancy A. Woolever, SPHR External contributor: Sharon H. Leonard Editor: Courtney J. Cornelius, copy editor Design: Terry Biddle, graphic designer © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson

 

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08-0769 Southwood School: A Case Study

 

in Training and Development caSe StUDY NarratIVe

 

Introduction

 

Southwood school administrators realized that a newly designed performance

 

management system for their support staff 1 would require a formal training

 

program. Designing and implementing the new performance management system

 

was a challenge for the organization; the last system was unpopular with employees,

 

and negative feelings about the value of performance management linger.

 

Case Overview

 

As discussed in the fi rst Southwood case study, some of the issues identified with the

 

previous performance management system included: 1. Annual deadlines to complete the process were missed by many staff members.

 

Some staff members were confused about what exactly needed to be completed and

 

when.

 

There were complaints that the previous system was a “waste of time” and that

 

there were no measurable outputs.

 

A trade union representative felt the system was not appropriate for all staff

 

members.

 

Criteria on the forms were irrelevant to support staff. For example, support staff

 

could not set objectives in pupil progress or have lessons observed.

 

There was little attention on identifying training needs, and where needs had been

 

identified, there was no follow-up with appropriate actions.

 

Appraisals were led by teachers with little knowledge of their appraisees’ jobs.

 

Performance meetings were a one-way process; often, performance goals were

 

identified before the meeting and without the appraisee’s input.

 

Examples of support staff jobs include: administrative positions (secretaries, administrators); student support

 

positions (learning mentors, learning support assistants, special needs assistants, computer technicians);

 

teacher support positions (teaching assistants, departmental assistants such as science technicians);

 

and strategic/management positions (HR manager, finance manager, director of administration, director

 

of information technology). © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson 1 A new system was designed in consultation with all stakeholders to address the

 

issues raised with the previous system. School leaders felt that a formal training

 

program was vital to ensure all employees supported the new system. This case

 

study demonstrates how the training was designed and delivered and some of the

 

complexities involved in this process.

 

Case Details

 

The case study consists of two parts:

 

I. Designing the training program for managers (appraisers). II. Designing the training program for appraisees. I. DeSIGNING tHe traINING ProGram For maNaGerS (aPPraISerS).

 

The managers in this case study are the appraisers in the new performance

 

management process. In some cases, they will be teachers with no formal

 

management qualifications. In other cases, they will be support staff with specific

 

management responsibilities in the organization.

 

Needs Analysis

 

Initially, the director of administration recommended that a selection of managers

 

complete a standard Internet-based training program provided by an online

 

training organization. Managers who completed the online training would receive

 

a certificate of achievement. Based on input from the HR manager, however, it was

 

decided that a custom-designed program would be more appropriate because it

 

would better meet managers’ needs. A custom-designed program would also allow

 

the school to relate the training back to their new performance management system

 

and provide flexibility in the program’s delivery.

 

There were a number of options available to determine who would design and deliver

 

the program: The HR manager could design and deliver the training.

 

The HR manager could design the content, and the training could be conducted

 

by a member of the school’s senior management team.

 

An external consultant could design and deliver the training.

 

An external consultant could design the content, and the HR manager could

 

conduct the training. In the end, it was decided that the HR manager would design and develop the

 

program with support from the senior management team, if necessary. The reasons

 

for this decision: Specialized knowledge. The HR manager had developed the new performance

 

management system and was therefore the most knowledgeable about it. Experience. The HR manager was experienced in developing training programs. Cost. This was the least expensive option; no direct costs would be incurred. 2 © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson note Context. It would be easier to include specifics about the new performance

 

management system if the training was designed by an internal person.

 

Flexibility. The sessions could be run at the times convenient to managers, which

 

may have been more difficult to accommodate with an external trainer. PLeaSe Note: From this point forward, the Hr manager is referred to

 

as the trainer.

 

Designing the Training

 

A focus group was held with five managers to fi nd out what they wanted from the

 

training and to assess their concerns about performance management. This was a

 

useful process. The managers wanted to include training in how to deal with difficult

 

people, which otherwise may not have been included in the program. Including this

 

also assured managers that their views were important and had been considered in

 

the program’s design.

 

The training would take place in-house and outside the normal workday. It was

 

agreed that the most appropriate method was a two-hour workshop. The workshop

 

would include various activities geared to develop the skills and knowledge of the

 

participants: Trainer-led interactive presentations. Role play exercises. Use of a specially designed case study. Small-group exercises. By developing and delivering the session in-house, training materials specific to

 

the new performance management system could be created, rather than relying

 

on generic training materials. It was hoped that this would facilitate the transfer

 

from training to the workplace. The training would be mandatory for all appraisers

 

to ensure consistency. The trainer developed a plan for the two-hour session

 

and included activities that would appeal to participants of various learning

 

styles. Appropriate resources and handouts were designed. The trainer used

 

the organization’s generic training evaluation form (provided at the end of this

 

workbook) to evaluate the program.

 

The program would include the following: How to develop questioning and listening skills. How to complete the new performance management documents. How to develop SMART objectives (objectives that are specific, measurable,

 

achievable, relevant and time-bound).

 

How to help employees identify training and development opportunities. © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson 3 Training Delivery

 

Participants were asked to read all the documents related to the new performance

 

management system before the training. The session was held in a classroom with

 

the necessary IT equipment during non-school hours. Eighty percent of appraisers

 

attended this scheduled session; the remaining 20 percent participated in another

 

presentation four weeks later.

 

Evaluation of the Training Program: The Trainer’s Perspective

 

The following is an excerpt from the trainer’s evaluation report:

 

Overall, I thought the session went really well. I covered all of the materials and had

 

some good responses.

 

I think most of the participants now have a good understanding of how to carry out

 

a performance review, but I am not entirely sure they believe there are benefits to a

 

performance appraisal system.

 

I was a bit disappointed with two participants who did not actively participate in the

 

activities. Perhaps they thought they already knew the information.

 

I might have misjudged one of the communication activities. I estimated that

 

it would take about 45 minutes, but everyone completed it in 20 minutes.

 

Unfortunately I didn’t have any extra activities, so I had to stretch out the fi nal

 

discussion so we didn’t fi nish too early. Evaluation of the Training Program: The Managers’ Perspective

 

Managers were asked to provide feedback at the end of the training. Some of the

 

results are shown below:

 

How would you rate the… Percentage who rated it as good/very

 

good Quality of materials 78% Knowledge of trainer 90% Presentation skills of trainer 70% Location of training event 50% Duration of event 85% rate the following statements: Percentage who rated it as agree/

 

strongly agree The session met the stated objectives. 78% I feel confident in leading performance reviews with members of my team. 80% The training methods used were appropriate. 60% 4 © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson Qualitative feedback was also offered: “The trainer was very good and was clearly knowledgeable about the subject.” “I found the practical tips to be really useful.” “It was a bit annoying when the administrators kept interrupting us to pass on

 

messages.”

 

“It would have been easier if everyone had read the new performance management

 

documents before they arrived at the session.”

 

“Some of the activities were a bit too childish – I think the trainer forgot that we

 

are all teachers.”

 

“Some of the handouts are really good.”

 

“I am still not convinced that performance management is something which

 

benefits us – it seems like another paper exercise.” II. DeSIGNING tHe traINING ProGram For aPPraISeeS

 

Needs Analysis

 

The HR manager was assigned responsibility for this program because of the

 

successful design and delivery of the manager’s training. This session was internally

 

led, for the same reasons the manager’s training was internally led.

 

Past experience showed that it was difficult to hold focus groups with support staff

 

members. Instead, an e-mail was sent to all support staff asking them what they

 

wanted to be included in their training program. Less than 10 percent of the support

 

staff responded to the e-mail.

 

The following instructional methods were chosen for this program based on

 

experience with previous training programs (see “Sample Training Program

 

Schedules”): Presentations by trainer Practical activities Role plays Worksheets Training Delivery

 

The appraisees were not assigned pre-work before the training because this may

 

have intimidated some participants. Although details of the new performance

 

management system had been shared with appraisees in an earlier e-mail, most

 

participants had not seen the actual documents that would be used. The documents

 

were distributed during the session so the trainer could guide them through and

 

answer any questions immediately.

 

The session was held in a school classroom, but was scheduled outside of normal

 

working hours (see “Appraisee Training Program Agenda”) to avoid disrupting staff © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson 5 and students during the normal school day. To compensate for the inconvenience,

 

attendees received overtime for the two hours spent in the training.

 

Training Program Evaluation

 

The trainer ran out of time during training. Consequently, no formal evaluations

 

were submitted by participants. The trainer thought it had been a challenging

 

session; it had been difficult to engage the participants. The participants had very

 

different needs and it was difficult to accommodate them within a two-hour session.

 

The trainer also reported that few trainees participated in the activities or asked any

 

questions.

 

Conclusions

 

This case study shows that there are many issues to consider when planning,

 

designing and delivering training programs. It is also clear that because people have

 

different needs and learning styles, it is difficult to produce a program that will be

 

rated well by everyone. In this instance, it was harder to satisfy people because of

 

the topic; negative experiences with the school’s previous performance management

 

system made this training unpopular. 6 © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson Sample Training Program Schedules

 

Program 1—Manager/Appraiser Training Program

 

Suggested Timing for Each Session Segment

 

Total Time: 2 hours Introduction to session: 15 minutes Lecture on general communication skills: 15 minutes Refreshment break: 10 minutes Lecture on how to complete performance management documentation: 25 minutes Video on performance management: 30 minutes Questions and answers: 10 minutes Computer-based test: 15 minutes Program 2—Appraisee Training Program

 

Suggested Timing for Each Session Segment

 

Total Time: 2 hours Introduction to the training (includes goals and objectives): 10 minutes Discussion with participants about what they want to get out of the session: 5 minutes Lecture on why performance management is important: 10 minutes Case study on dealing with difficult situations (whole group discussion): 20 minutes Role-play on dealing with difficult situations (pairs with a

 

third person providing feedback): 20 minutes

 

Interactive presentation on SMART objectives and training needs analysis: 10 minutes

 

Small group case study on setting SMART objectives

 

and identifying training needs: 15 minutes

 

Whole group discussion on how to complete performance

 

management documentation: 15 minutes

 

Introduction to additional resources, including handouts

 

and website addresses: 10 minutes

 

Session evaluation: 5 minutes © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson 7 TRAINING EVALUATION FORM

 

Your name:

 

Name of training session:

 

Name of trainer:

 

Why did you attend this training session? Very Good Good Satisfactory Poor Very Poor Strongly

 

Agree Agree Not sure Disagree Strongly

 

Disagree Please rate the following aspects of the training: Quality of materials

 

Knowledge of trainer

 

Presentation skills of trainer

 

Location of training event

 

Duration of event The session met the stated objectives.

 

The activities in the training session worked well.

 

The training methods were appropriate.

 

This training helped me develop my knowledge in this area.

 

This training helped me develop my skills in this area.

 

I now feel confident conducting performance reviews with members of my team.

 

rating:

 

on a scale of 1 to 10 with 1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest, rate your level of knowledge before the program.

 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 on a scale of 1 to 10 with 1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest, rate your level of knowledge after the program.

 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Additional comments or suggestions: Thank you for taking the time to complete this evaluation. 8 © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson aPPraISee traINING ProGram aGeNDa: PerFormaNce maNaGemeNt Session introduction (led by trainer)

 

• Session overview

 

• Goals and objectives

 

• Question-and-answer period for initial questions from participants Introduction to performance management

 

(interactive presentation led by trainer)

 

• What does performance management mean?

 

• Why does the school have a performance management system?

 

• What are the benefits of performance management? review of the new system (lecture by trainer) Practical considerations

 

• Who will conduct staff appraisals?

 

• How long will the appraisals take?

 

• Where will the appraisals take place?

 

• How far in advance will appraisees know the date for their performance review (one week, more)?

 

• What documents/evidence will you need to show your appraiser? Review the new documents and explain how they were designed. Explain how to complete the new documents. role-play activity The group will be split into teams of three and will receive a completed performance

 

review preparation sheet. One person will play the appraise, one person will be the

 

appraiser, and a third person will observe and provide feedback. communication skills After a brief interactive presentation, the trainer will work with the groups through

 

role-play scenarios. How to make the most out of your performance management review

 

• Five tips for a successful performance review.

 

• Dealing with difficult issues.

 

• Following up after your meeting. Question-and-answer session followed by the distribution of the performance

 

management documents

 

Session evaluation © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson 9 Bibliography/Additional Reading

 

Please note that the main text for this case study is Dessler’s Human Resource

 

Management. It is required reading to successfully complete the case.

 

Books

 

Dessler, G. (2005). Human Resource Management. 10th edition. Prentice Hall

 

Ivancevich, J.M. (2006). Human Resource Management. 10th edition. McGraw-Hill.

 

Articles

 

Horwitz, F.M. (1999). The emergence of strategic training and development: the

 

current state of play. Journal of European Industrial Training. 23 (4/5), 180-190.

 

Hughey, A.W., and Mussnug, K.J. (1997). Designing effective employee training

 

progammes. Training for Quality. 5(2), 52-57.

 

Roffe, I. (1999). Innovation and creativity in organisations: a review of the

 

implications for training and development. Journal of European Industrial Training.

 

23 (4/5), 224-241.

 

Shen, J. (2005). International training and management development: theory and

 

reality. The Journal of Management Development. 24(7), pp. 656-666.

 

Skinner, D., Saunders, M.N.K., and Beresford, R. (2004). Towards a shared

 

understanding of skill shortages: differing perceptions of training and development

 

needs. Education & Training. 46(4), 182-193.

 

Stern, D., Song, Y., and O’Brien, B. (2004). Company training in the United States

 

1970–2000: what have been the trends over time? International Journal of Training

 

and Development. 8(3), 191-209.

 

Tannenbaum, S.I., and Yukl, G. (1992). Training and Development in work

 

organizations. Annual Review of Psychology. 43, 399-441.

 

Arthur, W., and Bennett, W. (2003). Effectiveness of Training in Organizations:

 

A Meta-Analysis of Design and Evaluation Features. Journal of Applied Psychology.

 

88(2), 234-245. 10 © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson Internet Sources

 

CIPD (2007). Creative Learning Methods (online). http://www.cipd.co.uk/

 

subjects/training/trnmthds/creatmthds (Accessed 14 August 2007).

 

CIPD (2007). Identifying Learning and training needs (online)

 

http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/training/trnneeds/idtlneeds.htm?IsSrchRes=1

 

(Accessed 15 August 2007).

 

NWLink (2007). Instructional System Design (online).

 

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/sat.html (Accessed 27 October 2007).

 

Free Management Library (2007). Systematic approaches to Training and

 

Development (online). http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/basics/isd.htm

 

(Accessed 27 October 2007). © 2008 Society for Human Resource Management. Fiona L. Robson 11 SHRM members can download this case study and many others free of charge at www.shrm.org/hreducation/cases.asp.

 

If you are not a SHRM member and would like to become one, please visit www.shrm.org/join. 1800 Duke Street

 

Alexandria, VA 22314-3499

 


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