Introduction The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on child sexual abuse prevention programs in schools and examine the effects of these measures. In a school setting, numerous people usually wonder,“What is the educator’s or teacher’s role in handling suspected cases of child sexual abuse?” This is the main research question we are going to be researching on through reviewing literature from different scholars and psychologists. Child Sexual Abuse in Schools Child abuse is defined as the bodily and non-physical sexual contact with a person under the age of seventeen, as well as attempted or concluded oral, vaginal, or anal intercourse, contact with vagina, penis, or breasts, inappropriate kissing, hugging or extreme groping, inspecting or taking pictures of the child nude, or revealing the child to pornographic material (Goldman et al., 2003). Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a menace the present society is trying to overcome with zeal. Even though the figure of validated cases of CSA in the United States is upsetting, these astrophysicalfigures do not epitomize the wholevolume of child sexual harassments. In numerous instances a lot of children do not reveal their abuse, with aimsvariable from mortification, standardizationrelated to the mistreatment and terror of penalties if they reveal the abuse (Palmer, Brown, Rae-Grant, & Laughlin, 1999). In the beginning of the 70’s educational institutions and schools beganemploying child sexual abuse avoidance programs to aidin minimizing and elimination of the problem. School child sexual abuse prevention programs assist toencouragerevelation of earlier abuse and avertimpending abuse of schoolchildren. Studies show that a lot of school areasprovide some kind of child sexual abuse hindranceprogram. As school child sexual abuse prevention programs contrast, valuations of such programs vary. Generally, prevention programs seem to provide far more favorable than destructive effects on kids. Basically, students that participated in the programs are more likely to have anenhanced understanding of severalfeatures on CSA. Initiatives that include the schoolchildren in activities and transpirerecurrently over time appear to give the finestoutcomes (Davis & Gidycz, 2000). In understanding the accuratelatitude of the problem, it is useful to study who the culprits and victims are in instances of CSA. Hagans and Case (1988) clearly express that, “There is no one effectivesketch for all sexual molesters”. All age brackets, all economic groups, all levels of intellect, all races, and all religions are signified in the background of individuals that have molested children. Quite a number of perpetrators of CSA are conveyed to be juveniles and among these juveniles most of the sexual offenders are mostly known to be men (Sermabeikian and Martinez, 1994)and seventy eight percent of the offenders are stated to be somebody who the victimrecognizes.However, it is only the female victims that know their harassers personally, while male victims tend to be harassed more by complete strangers (ASDIGIAN and FINKELHOR, 1995)Prendergastremarks that kids are educated to conformto all power figures, comprisingeducators, cops, scout leaders, and big siblings, all clusters well symbolized among child and teenage molesters (1996, as cited in McDaniel, 2001, p. 207). This is the main reason it is not astonishing that a lot of children do not reveal their abuse. Teachers play an imperativepart in child protection services (Goldman et al., 2003). They function as a font of information to parents and students on precautionary abuse measures. Hence,they require to bewell-informed and conscious of variables that put individuals in an amplifiedthreat of undergoing abuse, recognize how to identifysigns of abuse, and know how to react to alleged cases of abuse. Even though CSA does not upsetspecific set sets of families, there are variables that put households at danger for child abuse or neglect (Goldman et al., 2003). These variables areclustered into four categories: parent, family, child, and environment. The Parent variables compriseof age, information, substance abuse concerns and history of abuse, psychological health, and character make-up. Family factors are situational, for example nuptial or economicdifficulties that the family is coping with. Child variables on the other hand include age, disabilities, and character make-. Environmental variables are typically a mixture of other three variables. Kaufman and Zigler(1987) indicated that “One assessment of the related research implied that about a third of all persons who were harassed will subject their children to maltreatment” (Kaufman and Zigler, 1987).Anexamination of the facts on child abuse cases from about fifty nationsconcluded that kids who stay with a single parent are more probable to be exposed to sexual abuse as compared to those living with both parents. A study by the National Research Council exposed that in one hundred and fifty sixty victims of CSA; only 31% lived with both geneticparents, 27% lived with their mothers and her new spouse. The odds of a child undergoing sexual and bodily abuse alongside with neglect rises when he/ she stays in a violent community(Wolfe and McGee, 1994). Educators also play an essentialpart in recognizingalleged cases of abuse (Woody, 2002). Teachers need to spot signs and indications of abuse and be capableof properly handlingcircumstancesencompassingsupposed abuse this is however an uphill task as it is extremely hard to tell if a child has been sexually harassed. Nurcombe, Roberts, Wooding, Bickman, and Marrington (2000) state, “sexual abuse is an experience, not a disorder. Its manifestations and contexts are quite diverse” (Nurcombe et al., 2000). A way to be ready is being conversant with the overall signs and symptoms that a victim mayexhibit. Some bodily tells that a child might be sexually abused consist ofstraining in walking, sitting, or going to the bathroom (Nurcombe et al., 2000). There are numerousactions that have been linkedto CSA. Some of them comprise of truancy, insomnia and appetite problems, regulargrievances of physical problems, trust issues, withdrawn conduct, unsuitable sexual behavior, violence, substance abuse, low self-esteem, extreme fears and worries, any abrupt changes, in grades, depression, and a deterioration in general behavior. Regression in behavior includesrelapsing back to earlier childlike tendencies likecrying, thumb sucking, and shitting one’s self Teachers are required by the law to act as reports of child abuse cases (Goldman et al., 2003). In 2000 teachers made the greatestrecommendations of child abuse and neglect as compared to any other referral services. Since enquiriesindicate that most sexual abuse is not revealed by kids, teachers need to recall they cannotdepend solely on expose when reporting sexual abuse (Murray, 2000). Information should be filed when kids are showing concerning physical, social, or behavioral indications. In a research involving about one hundred validated cases of CSA, 72% of the kidsat the beginning refused that they had been sexually harassed (Palmer et.al 1999). It was also found that only a mere 26% of these this research deliberatelyunveiled their abuse. Summit establisheda theory, which is reinforced by research, called the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome (Faller, 2000). Conferring to this theory, children’s reactions to child sexual abuse includes five stages: 1) silence, 2) powerlessness, 3) entrapment and accommodation, 4) late, unimpressiverevelation, and 5) denial (Palmer et.al 1999). Conclusion In conclusion, as CSA is a problem that is past a kid’s control, it is essential to give students skills for dealing with potential abusive situations. It is also vital for teachers to offer a helpfulsetting for children. As long as there is a caring environment will raise the chances children will reveal by themselves incidents of abuse. In addition, teachers have to serve a child guardian role in schools. They have to be conscious of variables that put children at jeopardy of abuse, know the signs and indications of abuse, and be capable to deal withalleged cases of abuse suitably and efficiently (Goldman et al., 2003).The four types of variables that might put a child at risk are parent factors, family factors, and child and environmental factors.Theindications of child sexual abuse can contrastsignificantly(Webster, 2001). A number of variables, such as a child’s character, quantity of backing, abusive experiences, and association to the offender play into the indicationsvictims’ experience. References: ASDIGIAN, N. and FINKELHOR, D. (1995). What Works for Children in Resisting Assaults?. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10(4), pp.402-418. Davis, M. and Gidycz, C. (2000). Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29(2), pp.257-265. Goldman, J., Salus, M. K., Wolcott, D., & Kennedy, K. (2003). A coordinated response to child abuse and neglect: The foundation for practice. Washington, DC: Office on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS). Kaufman, J. and Zigler, E. (1987). Do abused children become abusive parents?. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57(2), pp.186-192. Murray, J. (2000). Psychological Profile of Pedophiles and Child Molesters. The Journal of Psychology, 134(2), pp.211-224. Nurcombe, B., Wooding, S., Marrington, P., Bickman, L. and Roberts, G. (2000). Child sexual abuse II: treatment. Aust NZ J Psychiatry, 34(1), pp.92-97. Palmer, S. E., Brown, R. A., Rae-Grant, N. I., & Laughlin, M. J. (1999). Responding to children’s disclosure of familial abuse: What survivors tell us. Child Welfare, 78,259-283. Retrieved August 5, 2016, from EBSCOhost from Academic Search Elite. Sermabeikian, P. and Martinez, D. (1994). Treatment of adolescent sexual offenders: Theory-based practice. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18(11), pp.969-976. Webster, R. (2001). Symptoms and long-term outcomes for children who have been sexually assaulted.Psychol. Schs., 38(6), pp.533-547. Wolfe, D. and McGee, R. (1994). Dimensions of child maltreatment and their relationship to adolescent adjustment. Develop. Psychopathol., 6(01), p.165. Woody, J. (2002). Media Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse: An Opportunity for Family Therapists to Help Families and Communities. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 30(5), pp.417-426.
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