Some General Questions about Marine Habitats
a) At a given locality, a time-rock unit containing abundant fossil calcareous sponges and calcareous algae is conformably overlain by a time-rock unit containing siliceous sponges and cephalopods. What statement can be made about bathymetric change at the locality?
b) In general, why are cephalopods and planktonic foraminifers likely to be less useful than bryozoa in bathymetric analyses?
c) What general statement can be made about the paleobathymetry of a stratum containing abundant crinoids?
d) Note that the neritic-benthic environment contains greater numbers and diversity of organisms. What factors may account for this?
e) Many benthic animals burrow into the sea floor and live in the tubes they have excavated. Why are the burrows produced by littoral-benthic animals generally deeper than those produced by animals living in the neritic-benthic zone?
f) In addition to the information fossils may provide about paleobathymetry, fossils can also be useful indicators of ancient climates.
Refer to Figure 2-1 in answering the following questions.
i) Label each of the four time-rock units depicted in Figure 2-1 as either warm-marine, warm-moist non-marine, cool?moist non-marine, or cold?moist non-marine.
ii) Draw an arrow to identify and label the surfaces of any disconformity present at the outcrop. What is the evidence for these disconformities?
iii) During which geologic era were the two lower units deposited?
iv) During which geologic era was the uppermost unit deposited?
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