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(Solved) RESEARCH Post-GED-Credential College Prospects for Adults with


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RESEARCH

 


 

Post-GED-Credential College Prospects

 

for Adults with Special Needs

 

D r. M a r g a r e t B e c k e r P a tte rs o n

 


 

Research Allies for Lifelong Learning

 


 

ABSTRACT

 


 

Many adults with special needs, who did not finish

 

high school, complete a GED® credential to go to

 

college. As they prepare to transition, they may

 

encounter barriers and likely require supports to

 


 

IN T R O D U C T IO N

 


 

Y

 


 

oung adults with special needs who leave

 

high school early face numerous challenges

 

in adulthood. Those interested in college

 


 

may com plete a GED® credential, thus joining

 


 

succeed in college. The purpose of this qualitative

 


 

approximately 65% of GED test-takers who endorse

 


 

research paper is to describe the college prospects

 


 

further education as a reason for testing (GED®

 


 

of transitioning adults with a GED credential and

 


 

Testing Service, 2013). As they transition, they may

 


 

special needs, in terms of characteristics, challenges,

 


 

encounter barriers (Quigley & Uhland, 2000; Quigley,

 


 

attributes, and supports. Findings emerged from

 


 

Patterson, & Zhang, 2011; Roffman, 2000), which

 


 

qualitative interviews of GED passers in the recent

 


 

leads to the following questions: what added supports

 


 

Perceptions and Pathways research project. Tenacity

 


 

might they need for a successful transition; and how

 


 

m otivated m any interviewees toward resilience.

 


 

do they understand their prospects for college?

 


 

Enrollees with special needs valued encouragement

 


 

The purpose of this qualitative research paper

 


 

from a family m em ber or an instructor during

 


 

is to describe the college prospects of transitioning

 


 

their college experience. The article concludes with

 


 

adults with a GED credential and special needs in

 


 

interviewee and researcher recommendations for

 


 

terms of characteristics, challenges, attributes, and

 


 

adult education programs and colleges to support

 


 

supports. By employing a rich qualitative dataset from

 


 

transitioning adults.

 


 

the Perceptions and Pathways project of the American

 

Council on Education and GED® Testing Service in

 

2011, the paper considers a subset of interviewee data

 

on adults with special needs and their educational

 

experiences five years after GED credentialing. The

 

paper considers the seldom-researched relationship

 

of passing the GED test with the college prospects

 

of adults with special needs.

 


 

22 Journal of Research and Practice for Adult Literacy, Secondary, and Basic Education

 


 

?

 


 

Volume 3, Number 3, Fall 2014

 


 

Post-GED-Credential College Prospects

 


 

L IT E R A T U R E R E V IE W

 


 

Adults with disabilities may perceive educational

 


 

Students not completing high school may have

 


 

choices as limited (Rocco 8c Fornes, 2010). Generally,

 


 

physical, mental, or learning disabilities-or other

 


 

they less frequently enter college (D uquette 8c

 


 

special needs. These term s are not synonymous.

 


 

Fullarton, 2009; Mellard 8c Patterson, 2008; Payne,

 


 

D isability is defined as ?a physical or m ental

 


 

2010) or ten d to pursue sh o rt-term program s.

 


 

im pairm ent that substantially limits a major life

 


 

More specifically, adults with LD gravitate toward

 


 

activity? (USDOE, Office of Civil Rights, 2013).

 


 

career-tech n ical p ro g ram s an d achieve low er

 


 

Corley and Taymans (2002) defined one type of

 


 

com pletion rates than adults without disabilities

 


 

disability, learning disabilities (LD), as a ?broad array

 


 

(Corley 8cTaymans, 2002). Adults with LD in GED

 


 

of disorders in information processing? and note

 


 

preparation seldom access transition planning (Payne,

 


 

that adults with LD may ?experience problems that

 


 

2010). Despite the challenges they face, receiving a

 


 

significantly affect their academic achievement? (p.

 


 

GED® credential can be a pivotal event as adults

 


 

46). ?Special needs? more broadly includes people

 


 

close ?the door on a history of defeat and failure? to

 


 

with health conditions presenting substantial life

 


 

move on to college (LDA of Minnesota, 2006, p. 1).

 


 

barriers without meeting the narrower definition of

 

disability (Patterson, 2013).

 

M any adults w ith special needs enter adult

 


 

S k ills a n d C h a ra c te ris tic s o f A d u lts w ith

 

S p e c ia l N e e d s

 


 

ed u ca tio n (AE) p ro g ram s to p rep are for the

 


 

The literature on GED test-takers with disabilities

 


 

GED test. While prevalence data are not collected

 


 

indicated they have literacy skill levels comparable

 


 

consistently (National Research Council, 2012), the

 


 

to high school graduates with disabilities and go to

 


 

prevalence of disabilities in AE programs is pervasive

 


 

college at a higher rate than the latter group does

 


 

(KET, 2008; Mellard, Patterson, & Prewett, 2007;

 


 

(Hsu 8c George-Ezzelle, 2008; Lohman, Lyons, 8c

 


 

Patterson, 2013; Tamassia, Lennon, Yamamoto, 8c

 


 

Dunham, 2008; Patterson, 2013). Of first-year college

 


 

Kirsch, 2007). AE programs are also charged with

 


 

enrollees in the NCES Beginning Postsecondary

 


 

preparing learners to transition and to effectively face

 


 

Students survey, G uison-D ow dy and Patterson

 


 

challenges after AE completion.

 


 

(2011) found that nearly 17% of entering college

 

students with disabilities had a GED credential vs.

 


 

T ra n s itio n a l C h a lle n g e s fo r A d u lts w it h

 


 

10% holding traditional high school diplomas. Also,

 


 

S p e c ia l N e e d s

 


 

in a study of transitioning adults with LD, 7 of 10

 


 

Transitioning adults with special needs face

 


 

interviewees participated in GED preparation; three

 


 

numerous challenges. Multiple studies have found

 


 

simply took the test. Most interviewees were enrolled

 


 

that these adults struggle with confidence, motivation,

 


 

in college and one had completed a bachelor degree

 


 

or persistence (Duquette 8c Fullarton, 2009; Payne,

 


 

(Payne, 2010).

 


 

2010; Roffman, 2000). Some research further suggests

 

that high school dropouts may resist further formal

 


 

R e s ilie n c e o f T ra n s itio n in g A d u lts w ith

 


 

schooling as adults and may encounter dispositional,

 


 

S p e c ia l N e e d s

 


 

situational, or institutional barriers (Quigley, 1997;

 

Quigley et al., 2011).

 


 

The theory of educational resilience provides a

 

framework for addressing supports and attributes

 

Research

 


 

23

 


 

Patterson

 


 

of transitioning adults (Patterson, 2013; Quigley

 


 

experiences was apparent. The Perceptions and

 


 

et al., 2011). Resilience boosts chances for ?life

 


 

Pathways project was the first major qualitative

 


 

accomplishments despite environmental adversities

 


 

follow-up study o f GED passers on th eir later

 


 

b ro u g h t about by early traits, conditions, and

 


 

educational experiences (Quigley et al., 2011).

 


 

experiences? (Wang, Haertel, & Walberg, 1997, p.

 


 

Interviewee data for this paper came from a

 


 

46). Factors such as social and academic competence,

 


 

subset of Perceptions and Pathways data. Details

 


 

autonomy, or self-efficacy strengthen resilience

 


 

on state selection, data collection, and coding are

 


 

(Patterson, 2013). Educational resilience implies

 


 

offered in this journal (Patterson, 2013). O f the 85

 


 

adult action and self-advocacy as well as response

 


 

adults interviewed in the full study, 20 adult learners

 


 

to the support of family and mentors (Duquette &

 


 

reported having a disability or other special need.

 


 

Fullarton, 2009).

 


 

Each interview began w ith the interview er

 

showing a sample ?life map? (McPherson, Wang,

 


 

Research Questions

 


 

Hsu, 8c Tsuei, 2007). The interviewer then asked

 


 

W ith this background from the literature on

 


 

the interviewee to draw a one-page life map of

 


 

transition, four sets of research questions were

 


 

educational events and situations. On the life map,

 


 

developed to further investigate the attributes and

 


 

interviewees drew or wrote about leaving school,

 


 

challenges facing transitioning adults with special

 


 

taking the GED® test, and either going to college

 


 

needs and GED? credentials.

 


 

or not going (see Appendix for a sample life map).

 


 

1. What are the characteristics and educational

 

background of interviewees with special

 

needs?

 

2. What challenges did interviewees face as they

 

consider their college prospects?

 


 

The life map started the story of the interviewee?s

 

education and framed the interview conversation.

 

Interviewers then reviewed the life map and asked

 

open-ended questions about the adult?s educational

 

perceptions and pathways since leaving school.

 


 

3. W hat attributes related to resilience were

 


 

Interviewees typically were eager to share their

 


 

evident among college-bound interviewees?

 


 

experiences and addressed most issues of interest

 


 

4. W hat was the length of time to enrollment

 


 

in simply relating their story, with interviewers

 


 

and completion and how many completed?

 


 

following up as needed. Examples of clarifying

 


 

What supports did interviewees describe and

 


 

questions included, ?I see you wrote about Mr. T

 


 

recommend when deciding about college and

 


 

in school. So what happened there?? or ?Could you

 


 

during their college experience?

 


 

tell me more about this diploma picture you drew??

 

O ther open-ended follow-up questions included

 


 

DATA AND METHODS

 


 

how they valued education, what triggered them to

 


 

Following the American Council on Education?s

 


 

consider college, how their first m onth of college

 


 

series of reports on transitions using two cohorts of

 


 

went, whether they ever thought of dropping out,

 


 

a million GED' test-takers (Patterson, Zhang, Song,

 


 

whether they would pursue further education after

 


 

& Guison-Dowdy, 2010; Patterson, 2010; Zhang,

 


 

completion, and if they had any advice for peers,

 


 

Guison-Dowdy, Patterson, & Song, 2011), a need for

 


 

adult educators, or colleges.

 


 

qualitative investigation of GED passers? educational

 


 

Interview ees were no t asked initially about

 


 

24 Journal of Research and Practice for Adult Literacy, Secondary, and Basic Education ? Volume 3, Number 3, Fall 2014

 


 

Post-GED-Credential College Prospects

 


 

disabilities or special needs. If the interview ee

 


 

testing, seven interviewees endorsed testing to enter

 


 

disclosed voluntarily, the interview ee had the

 


 

a 2-year college and five to enter a 4-year college1.

 


 

opportunity to continue speaking about the disability

 


 

When interviewed, two were enrolled in college for

 


 

or special need if desired. The status was identified

 


 

the first time, six had never enrolled, and three had

 


 

later during data coding. Data were analyzed using an

 


 

stopped out after enrolling. Nine interviewees had

 


 

inductive content analysis. Initial analysis categories

 


 

graduated from college.

 


 

were created following coding, with multiple, iterative

 

categories leading to abstract themes (Patterson,

 

2013).

 


 

Challenges

 

Challenges facing interviewees inform ed the

 

second research question. C hallenges fell into

 


 

RESULTS

 


 

two m ajor categories: barriers at hom e and in

 

attending college. Often facing steep barriers, 14

 


 

Characteristics and Experiences

 


 

interviewees, who later enrolled, described college

 


 

Demographics and the educational background

 


 

choices positively or neutrally. Not surprisingly, many

 


 

of interviewees supply information to address the first

 


 

interviewees dealt with the effects of illness, pain, or

 


 

research question. They reflect diverse backgrounds,

 


 

disabling conditions. These effects appear to threaten

 


 

geographic locations, and educational experiences.

 


 

the balance of physical and mental well-being, as one

 


 

The rem ainder of this paper reports only on 20

 


 

interviewee observed: ?I?m not in a place where I can

 


 

interviewees with special needs (of the original 85).

 


 

[physically] keep up with school...Because when I?m

 


 

Interviewees were 22 to 56 years old when interviewed.

 


 

physically not right, mentally I can?t push myself...?

 


 

Interviewees came from six states and DC. Eleven

 


 

If that balance is off, barriers seem insurmountable

 


 

were women and nine were men; 19 were native

 


 

to the adult learner.

 


 

English speakers. Interviewees disclosed physical

 


 

Challenges a t hom e. The first category

 


 

disabilities, LD, and chronic health conditions;

 


 

reflects challenges at home, including chronic pain

 


 

five interviewees identified multiple special needs.

 


 

and intergenerational needs. Seven interviewees

 


 

Physical disabilities were vision impairments and

 


 

related dealing with chronic pain, which challenged

 


 

other disabilities resulting from injuries or accidents.

 


 

one interviewee to sit through class: ?...I said I?m

 


 

Learning disabilities included dyslexia, attention

 


 

not going to be able to [stay in class], I had to get up

 


 

disorder, and memory impairment. Disclosed chronic

 


 

and move around, I start hurting real bad... I have

 


 

health conditions were lupus, cancer, migraines, and

 


 

to sit down a while, stand up for a while.? For this

 


 

asthma (Patterson, 2013).

 


 

interviewee changing positions regularly made the

 


 

F ifteen p re p a red before GED testing . O n

 


 

difference between staying in class and leaving.

 


 

average interview ees com pleted n in th grade.

 


 

An interviewee with chronic head pain struggled

 


 

Nineteen dropped out of high school, and four were

 


 

with studying and was disappointed with her doctor?s

 


 

homeschooled1. Interviewees? total GED test scores1

 


 

advice not to overdo it: ?W hen I study hard... I

 


 

ranged from 2,260 to 3,560 (median = 2,660). When

 


 

have a pain in my head, very hard. I stopped, and

 


 

?Three interviewees from West Virginia and one from Washington, DC, participated in a pilot and lacked complete demographic

 

and background data.

 

Research

 


 

25

 


 

Patterson

 


 

then I went to see the doctor, and he said, ?You cant

 


 

commonly for adult learners, they intensified for

 


 

do anything very hard to you [sic].?? The pain she

 


 

interviewees. Some could only attend classes part

 


 

experienced interfered with her learning.

 


 

time or at certain times. An interviewee discussed

 


 

In addition to their own special needs, several

 


 

scheduling as she balanced parenting, coping with

 


 

in te rv ie w e e s c o p e d w ith in te r-g e n e ra tio n a l

 


 

lupus, and seeking a degree in psychiatry: ?I?m

 


 

challenges - caring for parents, siblings, or children.

 


 

going to be responsible for picking [my daughter]

 


 

The caregiving role can be potentially debilitating

 


 

up from school... so I won?t be able to go to school

 


 

when the caregiver also has a special need (Patterson,

 


 

at nighttime. I may have to go in the summertime.?

 


 

2013). A middle-aged interviewee reporting chronic

 


 

With her physical limitations, scheduling challenges

 


 

asthma cared for her father: ?My father passed away

 


 

implied delay in continuing college.

 


 

the last year [of college]. He died of cancer and that

 


 

Financial barriers were a third type of challenge;

 


 

semester that he was in the hospital, I still got As in

 


 

some interviewees struggled financially. The cost of

 


 

my studies. I was doing it for him.? While struggling

 


 

college, even part time, was often overwhelming.

 


 

with family and personal health needs, these adult

 


 

One interviewee with LD explained, ?I can?t come

 


 

learners were educationally resilient.

 


 

here [to college] because if I come part time, they

 


 

C h allen g e s g e ttin g to co lleg e. A second

 


 

won?t cover all my class [financially]... Because I

 


 

major category of challenges interviewees described

 


 

can?t go to full time ... I could not physically and

 


 

experiencing revolved around getting to college,

 


 

mentally keep up and work to support myself.? For

 


 

including tra n sp o rta tio n to class, scheduling

 


 

this interviewee, who was self-supporting, college

 


 

issues, and finances. For interviewees with physical

 


 

costs without financial aid tipped the scales against

 


 

limitations, chronic illnesses, or other impairments

 


 

attending college.

 


 

that prohibited driving, transportation was a frequent

 

barrier (Patterson, 2013). Many relied on family,

 


 

A ttr ib u te s a n d R e s ilie n c e

 


 

friends, or classmates to get to class. ?I just wished

 


 

Interviewee attributes relating to educational

 


 

I?d had a ride, but I got here because me and the

 


 

resilience are considered in the th ird research

 


 

girl [sic] were in the same class,? explained one

 


 

question. As they reflected on college decisions,

 


 

interviewee with a chronic illness. A few interviewees

 


 

interviewees identified multiple attributes associated

 


 

had never learned to drive or could no longer drive

 


 

with resilience (Patterson, 2013). Being persistent

 


 

because of physical impairments. One interviewee

 


 

or simply yearning to learn motivated them to be

 


 

with two injured knees described what followed her

 


 

resilient. They spoke about positive attributes of the

 


 

first surgery: ?I probably could?ve taken a class ...

 


 

self: self-acceptance and self-reliance.

 


 

[but] I couldn?t drive. I had this brace from here to

 


 

T e n a c it y . T he a ttrib u te m o st freq u en tly

 


 

the ankle. I didn?t [take a class].? The transportation

 


 

m entioned in interviews was tenacity (Patterson,

 


 

barrier was not lack of a vehicle; these interviewees

 


 

2013). A college enrollee in her 30?s affirmed: ?I?m

 


 

couldn?t drive. For these adults, having a dependable

 


 

determined once I set my m ind and I do it, if at all

 


 

ride allowed them to keep going, literally.

 


 

possible. I?m not a quitter.? Interviewees discussing

 


 

A nother challenge in getting to college

 


 

tenacity tended to be college enrollees or graduates.

 


 

was scheduling. W hile scheduling issues occur

 


 

Tenacity did not imply a lack of barriers; in fact,

 


 

26 Journal of Research and Practice for Adult Literacy, Secondary, and Basic Education ? Volume 3, Number3, Fall 2014

 


 

Post-GED-Credential College Prospects

 


 

several interviewees talked about how persistence

 


 

about their prospects.

 


 

helped them through challenges. O ne college

 


 

S e lf-a c c e p ta n c e . Interviewees described

 


 

graduate with LD, when asked if she had thought

 


 

positive attributes of the self: self-acceptance and

 


 

of dropping out of college, replied,

 


 

self-reliance (Patterson, 2013). A middle-aged male

 


 

Oh, no. I wasn?t going to drop out! No. That?s

 


 

interviewee, disabled in an accident, learned to

 


 

one thing I am not, is a quitter. So I may

 


 

accept himself in college psychology classes. ?Taking

 


 

get discouraged and draw back, because I

 


 

psychology as an elective later on, I found out why I

 


 

don?t think something?s going to happen. Or

 


 

did a lot of the things I did,? he explained, ?I turned

 


 

financially, or there are certain things I just

 


 

out to be a free spirit.. .You know, [free spirits] want

 


 

can?t change. Then I?ll back off. But if I?m in

 


 

to do things how they want to do it... it does make

 


 

it, then I?ll go. I?ll finish it.

 


 

sense when you figure out what kind of person you

 


 

Even when faced with financial difficulties and life

 


 

are.? Understanding himself led to self-acceptance.

 


 

stressors beyond her control, she perceived her

 


 

Self-reliance. A second theme was self-reliance

 


 

tenacity as contributing to educational resilience.

 


 

(Patterson, 2013). Self-reliance and self-efficacy

 


 

Another college graduate, with lupus, admitted how

 


 

were often coupled in interviewee descriptions of

 


 

a relative?s advice inspired tenacity:

 


 

learning. After a truck accident broke her back, a

 


 

I got a whole bunch of other circumstances?

 


 

female interviewee, who described her early life as

 


 

medical, things that are not going to be

 


 

a series of distractions by peers who persuaded her

 


 

curable?holding me back. One thing my

 


 

to leave school, relied on herself to keep learning:

 


 

aunt always said is, ?Let me tell you some­

 


 

[Going for the postsecondary certificate] was

 


 

thing. You say you?re a fighter. You?re in the

 


 

a really good experience. It helped me with

 


 

hospital for a month. You come home, you

 


 

self-esteem... After I got in the wheelchair,

 


 

go back to work, you go back to school...

 


 

I went away from everybody... I work pretty

 


 

You do not give up.? It taught me not to [give

 


 

well on my ow n... Yes. If I?m left alone from

 


 

up], even with [low] self-esteem that I felt.

 


 

any distractions I can stay on track pretty

 


 

No, no quitting.

 


 

good.

 


 

In fighting against lupus, tenacity gave her resilience

 


 

She persevered alone through a computer certificate

 


 

to complete college.

 


 

and perceived herself as self-reliant and persistent,

 


 

Yearning fo r learning. A yearning for learning

 


 

even though she thought learning was ?really tough.?

 


 

was another attribute of multiple interviewees, who

 


 

A middle-aged female interviewee, who earned

 


 

were generally young. A young female interviewee

 


 

a master?s degree, relayed how she had learned self-

 


 

who ?wanted to know everything? and completed two

 


 

reliance as a child of an alcoholic (Patterson, 2013):

 


 

degrees believed she has ?always loved learning... I

 


 

?I had to pretty much learn for myself and rely on

 


 

am very happy with myself for having accomplished

 


 

myself to go in the right direction...? Later, after

 


 

everything that I have.? A young male college graduate

 


 

passing the GED® test, she decided to go to college.

 


 

remarked about his college experience: ?I stuck with

 


 

She added, ?I knew that I had the ability to make my

 


 

it because I like to learn...My life is about studying....?

 


 

own destiny.? She relied on herself and believed she

 


 

These young adults were eager to learn and confident

 


 

could achieve her goals.

 

Research

 


 

27

 


 

Patterson

 


 

E n c o u ra g e m e n t a n d S u p p o rts

 


 

postsecondary program s. Six o f the graduates

 


 

The fourth set of research questions addresses

 


 

completed postsecondary certificates, three earned

 


 

the time span from GED® testing to enrollment and

 


 

an associate degree, and one each had a bachelor

 


 

completion, as well as encouragement and supports

 


 

or master degree. A few interviewees earned two

 


 

interviewees described while deciding about college,

 


 

postsecondary credentials.

 


 

and during their college experience.

 


 

Nearly all completed within a standard amount

 


 

Length o f tim e to decide. Deciding to enroll

 


 

of time for the degree or program. Five receiving

 


 

in college takes time. M ost enrollees m ade the

 


 

certificates did so within a few months; one took

 


 

decision immediately after or within a few months

 


 

12 m onths. Two interviewees w ith an associate

 


 

of GED® testing. Two young interviewees waited

 


 

degree completed in two years, and the interviewee

 


 

a year to enroll, and another waited three years.

 


 

continuing on for a bachelor degree completed it

 


 

One interviewee reporting dyslexia and memory

 


 

after an additional two years.

 


 

challenges described his sudden realization a year

 


 

F a m ily

 


 

e n c o u ra g e m e n t.

 


 

D eciding to

 


 

after testing: ?I just said, ?I?m going to college.? ...Well,

 


 

enroll and completing college may be related to

 


 

I had to go somewhere... I wanted to get a degree....

 


 

encouragement. Interviewees with encouragement,

 


 

I was, like, ?You know what? I?m going to go attend

 


 

especially from parents and family, tended to enroll

 


 

the community college.??

 


 

in college, while those lacking encouragement tended

 


 

A n interview ee w ho w aited three years to

 


 

not to enroll. Enrollees with encouragement, however,

 


 

enroll had to sift through a plethora of advice. This

 


 

tended to stop out of their college programs almost as

 


 

homeschooled young woman experienced cancer

 


 

often as they graduated. Interviewees who stopped out

 


 

at 14 and aspired to a doctorate in psychology. She

 


 

may have just as much, if not more, encouragement

 


 

described needing help choosing an undergraduate

 


 

than those who graduated, yet seemed overwhelmed.

 


 

program and ?finding which colleges are best? for

 


 

Having encouragers in their lives appears to offer

 


 

her. She sought guidance from peers and professors:

 


 

strong motivation to continue education.

 


 

There were plenty of people around to give

 


 

Ten interviewees described their mothers and six

 


 

me advice, but the advice I sought most were

 


 

their fathers as encouraging them to decide about

 


 

(sic) from those who had been in my shoes or

 


 

college. Although it did not guarantee graduation,

 


 

professors at college...I got a lot of opinions,

 


 

family encouragement was particularly apparent for

 


 

but they weren?t all helpful....

 


 

interviewees who later graduated from college. Seven

 


 

Ultimately she got help from a brother. ?My brother

 


 

of nine graduates reported having encouragement

 


 

who was already attending a college was what you

 


 

from family during decision-making.

 


 

might consider a college counselor for me and guided

 


 

After enrolling in college, 13 of 14 interviewees

 


 

me through the process.? W ith his assistance she

 


 

who enrolled discussed family encouragem ent.

 


 

enrolled.

 


 

A total o f seven m others, five fathers, and one

 


 

C o m p le tin g c o lle g e . Also inform ative is

 


 

grandmother encouraged them throughout college.

 


 

understanding how many interviewees completed

 


 

Just as parents influenced m aking th e college

 


 

college programs and how long it took. Nine of 14

 


 

decision, they also encouraged interviewees during

 


 

interviewees who enrolled graduated from their

 


 

college. The young male interviewee reporting

 


 

28 Journal of Research and Practice for Adult Literacy, Secondary, and Basic Education

 


 

?

 


 

Volume 3, Number 3, Fall 2014

 


 

Post-GED-CredentiaI College Prospects

 


 

dyslexia and memory challenges relied heavily on

 


 

Two interviewees reported that an instru...

 


Solution details:

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