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(Solved) CASE Jones Blair Company In early January 2005, Alexander


Jones-Blair Case Analysis

Instructions: 2-3 page analysis on the Jones-Blair Case attached.
CASE

 


 

Jones ? Blair Company

 

In early January 2005, Alexander Barrett, president of Jones- Blair Company, slumped

 

back in his chair as his senior management executives filed out of the conference

 

room. "Another meeting and still no resolution," he thought. After two lengthy meetings, the executive group still had not decided where and how to deploy corporate

 

marketing efforts among the various architectural paint coatings markets served by

 

the company in the southwestern United States. He asked his secretary to schedule

 

another meeting for next week.

 


 

? THE U.S. PAINT INDUSTRY

 

The U.S. paint industry is divided into three broad segments: (1) architectural coatings, (2) original equipment manufacturing (OEM) coatings, and (3) special-purpose

 

coatings. Architectural coatings consist of general-purpose paints, varnishes, and lacquers used on residential, commercial, and institutional structures, sold through

 

wholesalers and retailers, and purchased by do-it-yourself consumers, painting contractors, and professional painters. Architectural coatings are commonly called shelf

 

goods and account for 43 percent of total industry dollar sales. OEM coatings are formulated to industrial buyer specifications and are applied to original equipment during manufacturing. These coatings are used for durable goods such as automobiles,

 

trucks, transportation equipment, appliances, furniture and fixtures, metal containers

 

and building products, and industrial machinery and equipment. OEM coatings represent 35 percent of total industry dollar sales. Special-purpose coatings are formulated

 

for special applications or environmental conditions, such as extreme temperatures,

 

exposure to chemicals, or corrosive conditions. These coatings are used for automotive and machinery refinishing, industrial construction and maintenance (including

 

factories, equipment, utilities, and railroads), bridges, marine applications (ship

 

and offshore facilities such as oil rigs), highway and traffic markings, aerosol and

 

metallic paints, and roof paints. Special-purpose coatings account for 22 percent of

 

total industry dollar sales.

 

The U.S. paint industry is generally considered to be a maturing industry. Industry

 

sales in 2004 were estimated to be slightly over $16 billion. Average annual dollar sales

 

growth was forecasted to approximate the general rate of inflation through 2005.

 


 

Outlook for Architectural Paint Coatings and Sundries

 

Industry sources estimated U.S. sales of architectural paint coatings and sundries

 

(brushes, rollers, paint removers and thinners, ete.) to be $12 billion-plus in 2004.

 


 

The cooperation of Ioncs-Blair Company in the preparation of this case is gratefully acknowledged. This

 

case was prepared by Professor Roger A. Kerin, Edwin 1. Cox School of Business, Southern Methodist

 

University, as a basis for class discussion and is not designed to illustrate effective or ineffective handling of

 

an administrative situation. Certain names and selected market and sales data have been disguised and are

 

not useful for research purposes. Copyright © 2005 by Roger A. Kerin. No part of this case may be

 


 

reproduced without written permission of the copyright holder.

 


 

109

 


 

110

 


 

CHAPTER 4 OPPORTUNITY

 


 

ANALYSIS, MARKET SEGMENTATION, AND MARKET TARGETING

 


 

Architectural coatings are considered to be a mature market with long-term sales

 

growth projected in the range of 1 to 2 percent per year. Demand for architectural

 

coatings and sundries reflects the level of house redecorating, maintenance, and repair,

 

as well as sales of existing homes, and to a lesser extent new home, commercial, and

 

industrial construction. Industry sources also noted that the demand for architectural

 

coatings and sundries is affected by two other factors. First, the architectural coating

 

segment faced competition from alternative materials, such as aluminum and vinyl

 

siding, interior wall coverings, and wood paneling. Second, paint companies had

 

developed higher-quality products that reduced the amount of paint necessary per

 

application and the frequency of repainting. Counteracting these factors, industry

 

observers foresaw increasing demand for paint sundries due to a trend toward

 

do-it-yourself painting by household consumers.

 

U.S. paint manufacturers are under growing pressure to reduce emissions of

 

volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paints and to limit the consumption of

 

solvents. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has adopted a three-step plan

 

for the reduction ofVOCs in architectural and industrial maintenance coatings. The

 

first phase of the plan, which took effect in 1996, required a 25 percent reduction in

 

VOC content from the base year of 1990. VOCs were reduced another 35 percent

 

(from the 1990 base year) in 2000 and 45 percent in the third phase in 2003.

 

Compliance with EPAregulations eroded historically low profit margins in the paint

 

industry.

 


 

Consolidation and Competition in the Architectural

 

Coatings Segment

 

Slow sales growth, the necessity for ongoing research and development, and recent

 

compliance with governmental regulations have fueled merger and acquisition activity in the U.S. paint industry. Companies seeking growth and a higher sales base to

 

support increasing costs are making acquisitions. Companies that were unwilling or

 

unable to make capital and research and development (R&D) commitments necessary

 

to remain competitive sold their paint businesses. Industry sources estimate that the

 

number of paint companies is currently 600, or about 40 percent fewer companies

 

than in 1980. The number of paint companies is presently declining at a rate of 2 to 3

 

percent per year. Merger activity generally involved the purchase of small companies

 

by larger firms to boost their specific market or geographic presence. Still, because of

 

readily available technology and difference in paint formulations associated with

 

regional climatic needs, a small number of regional paint manufacturers, such as

 

Jones-Blair Company, have competed successfully against paint manufacturers that

 

distribute their products nationally.

 

Major producers of paint for the architectural coatings segment include SherwinWilliams, Benjamin Moore, the Glidden unit of Imperial Chemicals, PPG Industries,

 

Valspar Corporation, Grow Group, and Pratt & Lambert. These producers account for

 

upwards of 60 percent of sales in the architectural coatings segment. They market

 

paint under their own brand names and for retailers under private, controlled, or store

 

brand names. For example, Sherwin-Williams markets the Sherwin-Williams brand and

 

produces paint for Sears.

 

About 50 percent of architectural coatings are sold under private, controlled, or

 

store brands. Sears, Lowe's, Wal-Mart, and Home Depot are major marketers of these

 

brands. In addition, hardware store groups such as True Value and Ace Hardware market their own paint brands.

 

Specialty paint stores, lumberyards, and independent hardware stores that sell

 

architectural paint and paint sundries have been able to compete in the paint business

 

despite the presence of mass merchandisers (such as Sears) and home improvement

 

centers (such as Lowe's and Home Depot). Industry sources estimate that specialty

 

I

 


 

JONES'

 


 

111

 


 

BLAIR COMPANY

 


 

paint stores account for about 36 percent of paint and sundry sales; hardware and

 

lumberyards account for 14 percent. Furthermore, specialty paint and hardware

 

stores and lumberyards in nonmetropolitan areas have outdistanced mass merchandisers and home improvement centers as sources for paint and paint sundries. This is

 

largely attributable to a lack of home improvement centers and mass-merchandiser

 

distribution in these areas and paint store, hardware, and lumberyard customer relations and service. However, Wal-Mart has been an effective competitor in many nonmetropolitan areas.

 

Home centers (including wholesale home centers) and mass merchandisers (including membership clubs such as Sam's) represent the two most frequently patronized categories of retailers shopped by do-it-yourself painters for paint and sundry items.

 

Specialty paint stores and lumberyards were the most frequently patronized retail stores

 

by professional painters for paint products and sundry items.

 


 

Architectural Coatings Purchase Behavior

 

Approximately 50 percent of architectural coatings dollar sales are accounted for by

 

do-it-yourselfer painters. Professional painter purchases account for 25 percent of

 

dollar sales. The remainder of architectural coatings dollar sales result from government, export, and contractor sales.

 

Almost 60 percent of annual architectural coatings sales are for interior paints.

 

Exterior paint represents 38 percent of sales. Lacquers and all other applications make

 

up the balance of sales. Slightly less than one in four households purchase interior

 

house paint in any given year. The percentage of households purchasing exterior house

 

paint is considerably less than that for interior paint. The popularity of do-it-yourself

 

painting, particularly for interior applications, has increased the paint and sundry item

 

product line carried by retail outlets. Paint industry consumer research indicates that

 

the average dollar paint purchase per purchase occasion is about $74.00. The average

 

dollar sundry purchase per purchase occasion is about $12.00.

 

Research by the Home Improvement Research Institute indicates that do-it-yourself

 

painters first choose a retail outlet for paint and paint sundries, then choose a paint

 

brand. This research also identified four steps in the do-it-yourself decision process

 

for home improvement products, including paint. The results of this research are

 

summarized in Exhibit 1 on page 112.

 

"Paint has become a commodity;' commented Barrett. "Do-it-yourself purchasers

 

all too often view paint as paint-a covering-and try to get the best price. But there

 

is a significant number of people who desire service as well in the form of information

 

about application, color matching, surface preparation, and durability;' he added. He

 

conceded that once paint is on the wall, you can't initially tell the difference between

 

premium-priced and competitively priced paint.

 

"There is a difference between painting contractors

 

and professional

 

painters, however," he continued. "Pot and brush guys [professional painters] do

 

seek out quality products, since their reputation is on the line and maintenance

 

firms don't want to have to paint an office each time a mark appears on a wall.

 

They want paint that is durable, washable, and will cover in a single coat. They

 

also look to retailers who will go the extra mile to give them service. Many

 

request and get credit from stores. They appreciate being able to get to stores

 

early in the morning to pick up paint and supplies. They deal with stores that can

 

mix large quantities of custom colors and expect to work with knowledgeable

 

store employees who can give them what they want. It is not surprising to me

 

that paint stores remain the preferred outlet for paint and sundries for professional painters. Contractors simply want a coating in many instances and strive for

 


 

the lowest price, particularly on big jobs."

 


 

112

 


 

CHAPTER 4 OPPORTUNITY

 


 

EXHIBIT

 


 

ANALYSIS, MARKET SEGMENTATION,

 


 

AND MARKET TARGETING

 


 

1

 


 

Consumer Buying Decision Process for Home Improvement

 


 

Step 1

 


 

Step 2

 


 

Products

 


 

Step 3

 


 

Step 4

 

Decide on

 

Product

 


 

Primary Motivation:

 

?

 

-.

 

?

 

?

 


 

Old/Nonrepairable

 

Have the Time

 

Have the Money

 

House Is an Investment

 


 

For Products, From:

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 


 

Friends/Relatives

 

Retailers

 

Consumer Reports

 

Mfg. Iiterature

 

Professionals

 

Magazines/Books

 

Internet

 


 

Key Criteria:

 


 

Will Shop:

 

? "Different Stores"

 

46% of the time

 

? "One Store"

 

27% of the time

 

? "For Best Price"

 

22% of the time

 

? "Close to Home"

 

8% of the time

 


 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 

?

 


 

Durable/Reliable

 

Acceptable price

 

Performs well

 

Brand reputation

 

Ease of use

 

Style/Appearance

 

Warranty/Service

 


 

Source: Home Improvement Research Institute. Reprinted from National Home Center News," 10 Forces Reshaping the Retail Home

 


 

Improvement Market,"©1996. Used with permission .

 


 

?

 


 

JONES·

 


 

BLAIR COMPANY SERVICE AREA

 

jones- Blair Company markets its paint and sundry items in over 50 counties in Texas,

 

Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Louisiana from its plant and headquarters in Dallas,

 

Texas. The eleven county Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) metropolitan area is the major

 

business and financial center in the company's southwestern service area.

 

Competition at the retail level has accelerated in recent years. Sears and Kmart

 

have multiple outlets in DFw, as do Sherwin- Williams and Home Depot. Competition

 

for retail selling space in paint stores, lumberyards, and hardware stores has also

 

increased. "Our research indicates that 1,000 of these outlets now operate in the

 

50-county service area, and DFW houses 450 of them," noted Barrett. "When you consider that the typical lumberyard or hardware store gets 10 percent of its volume

 

($65,000) from paint and the typical paint store has annual sales of $400,000 with

 

three brands, you can see that getting and keeping widespread distribution is a key

 

success factor in this industry. Over 1,200 outlets were in operation in the area a

 

decade ago; about 600 were situated in the DFW area."

 

Competition at the paint manufacturing level has increased as well. The major

 

change in competitive behavior has occurred among paint companies that sell to

 

contractors serving the home construction industry. These companies have aggressively priced their products to capture a higher percentage of the home construction

 

market. "Fortunately, these companies have not pursued the 400 or so professional

 

painting firms in DFW and the 200 professional painters outside the DFW area or the

 

do-it-yourselfer market as yet," said Barrett. They have not been able to gain access

 

to retail outlets, but they may buy their way in through free goods, promotional

 

allowances, or whatever means are available to them in the future.

 

"We believe that mass merchandisers control 50 percent of the do-it-yourselfer

 

paint market in the DFW metropolitan area. Price seems to be the attraction, but we

 


 

can't quarrel with their quality,"noted Barrett.

 


 

JONES·

 


 

113

 


 

BLAIR COMPANY

 


 

EXHIBIT

 


 

2

 


 

Architectural Paint and Sundry Sales Volume, Excluding Contractor

 

(in Millions of Dollars)

 

Year

 


 

Total Dollar Sales

 


 

Sales

 


 

DFW Area Sales

 


 

Non-DFW Area Sales

 


 

2000

 


 

$75.7

 


 

$50.9

 


 

$24.8

 


 

2001

 


 

76.4

 


 

50.8

 


 

25.6

 


 

2002

 


 

77.6

 


 

50.5

 


 

27.1

 


 

2003

 


 

78.4

 


 

50.7

 


 

27.7

 


 

2004

 


 

80.0

 


 

48.0

 


 

32.0

 


 

The estimated dollar volume of architectural paint and allied products sold in

 

Jones Blair's 50-county service area in 2004 was $80 million (excluding contractor

 

sales). DFW was estimated to account for 60 percent of this figure, with the remaining

 

volume being sold in other areas. Do-it-yourself household buyers were believed to

 

account for 70 percent of non-contractor-related volume in DFW and 90 percent of

 

non-con tractor-related volume in other areas. A five-year summary of architectural

 

paint and allied product sales in the Jones o Blair service area is shown in Exhibit 2.

 

0

 


 

? JONES·

 


 

BLAIR COMPANY

 

Jones Blair Company is a privately held corporation that produces and markets architectural paint under the Jones Blair brand name. In addition to producing a full line of

 

architectural coatings, the company sells paint sundries (brushes, rollers, thinners,

 

etc.) under the Jones Blair name, even though these items are not manufactured by

 

the company. The company also operates a very large OEM coatings division, which

 

sells its products throughout the U.S. and worldwide.

 

Company architectural paint and allied products sales volume in 2004 was

 

$12 million, and net profit before taxes was $1,140,000. Dollar sales had increased at

 

an average annual rate of 4 percent per year over the past decade. Paint gallonage,

 

however, had remained stable over the past five years. "We have been very successful

 

in maintaining our margins even with increased research and development, material

 

and labor costs, but I'm afraid we're approaching the threshold on our prices,"

 

Barrett said. "We are now the highest-priced paint in our service area." In 2004, paint

 

cost-of-goods sold, including freight expenses, was 60 percent of net sales.

 

0

 


 

0

 


 

0

 


 

Distribution

 

The company distributes its products through 200 independent paint stores, lumberyards, and hardware outlets. Forty percent of its outlets are located in the Ll-county

 

DFW area. The remaining outlets are situated in the other 39 counties in the service

 

area. Jones Blair sales are distributed evenly between DFW and non-DFW accounts.

 

Exhibit 3 on page 114 shows the account and sales volume distribution by size of dollar purchase per year.

 

Retail outlets outside the DFW area with paint and sundry purchases exceeding

 

$50,000 annually carry only the Jones o Blair product line. However, except for 14

 

outlets in DFW (those with purchases greater than $50,000 annually), which carry

 

the jones-Blair line exclusively, DFW retailers carry two or three lines, with

 

jones-Blair's line being premium priced. "Our experience to date shows that in our

 

I

 

DFW outlets, the effect of multiple lines has been to cause a decline in gallonage

 

0

 


 

114

 


 

CHAPTER 4 OPPORTUNITY

 


 

EXHIBIT

 


 

ANALYSIS, MARKET SEGMENTATION, AND MARKET TARGETING

 


 

3

 

b5."

 


 

Account and Sales Volume Percentage

 

per Year

 


 

Distribution

 


 

by Dollar Purchase

 


 

Retail Accounts

 

Dollar

 


 

Purcbase/Year

 


 

$50,000+

 


 

Dollar

 


 

Sales Volume

 


 

DFW

 


 

Non-DFW

 


 

Total

 


 

DFW

 


 

Non-DFW

 


 

7%

 


 

10%

 


 

Total

 


 

17%

 


 

28%

 


 

28%

 


 

56%

 


 

$25,000-$50,000

 


 

14

 


 

20

 


 

34

 


 

13

 


 

13

 


 

26

 


 

Less than $25,000

 


 

19

 


 

30

 


 

49

 


 

9

 


 

9

 


 

18

 


 

40%

 


 

60%

 


 

100%

 


 

50%

 


 

50%

 


 

100%

 


 

Total

 


 

volume. The non-DFW outlets, by comparison, have grown in gallonage volume.

 

When you combine the two, you have stable gallonage volume," remarked Barrett.

 


 

Promotional Efforts for Architectural Coating Sales

 

Jones·Blair employs eight sales representatives. They are responsible for monitoring

 

inventories of jones- Blair paint and sundry items in each retail outlet, as well as for order

 

taking, assisting in store display, and coordinating cooperative advertising programs.

 

A recent survey of jones- Blair paint dealers indicated that the sales representatives were

 

well liked, helpful, professional, and knowledgeable about paint. Commenting on the survey findings, Barrett said, "Our reps are on a first-name basis with their customers. It is

 

common for our reps to discuss business and family over coffee during a sales call, and

 

some of our people even 'mind the store' when the proprietor has to run an errand or

 

two." Sales representatives are paid a salary and a 1 percent commission on sales.

 

The company spends approximately 3 percent of net sales on advertising and sales

 

promotion efforts. Approximately 55 percent of advertising and sales promotion dollars are

 

allocated to cooperative advertising programs with retail accounts. The cooperative program, whereby jones- Blair pays a portion of an account's media costs based on the dollar

 

amount of paint purchased fromjones- Blair,applies to newspaper advertising and seasonal

 

catalogs distributed in a retailer's immediate trade area. Exhibit 4 shows an example of a

 

jones-Blair Company cooperative print advertisement. The remainder of the advertising

 

and sales promotion budget is spent on in-store displays, corporate brand advertising, outdoor signs, regional magazines, premiums, and advertising production costs .

 


 

?

 


 

PLANNING MEETING

 

Senior management executives of jones-Blair Company assembled again to consider

 

the question of where and how to deploy corporate marketing efforts among the various architectural paint coatings markets served by the company. Barrett opened the

 

meeting with a statement that it was absolutely necessary to resolve this question at

 

the meeting in order for the tactical plan to be developed. The peak painting season

 

was soon approaching and decisions had to be made.

 

Vice President of Advertising: Alex, I still believe that we must direct our efforts

 

toward bolstering our presence in the DFW do-it-yourselfer market. I just

 

received the results of our DFW consumer advertising awareness study. As you

 


 

can see [Exhibit 5 on page 116], awareness is related to paint purchase behavior.

 

.

 


 

I

 


 

.?..

 


 

JONES'

 


 

BLAIR COMPANY

 


 

115

 

EXHIBIT

 


 

4

 


 

Jones· Blair Company Print Advertisement

 


 

. I'

 


 

? Mildew Resistant

 

? Resists PeenRg, Raking

 

& Blistering

 

? Thousands of Colors

 

SATIN $00.00 ? SEIVII-GLOSS$00.00

 


 

? Onecoat coverage

 


 

? SCMlbbable

 


 

-SlUltterReslSta!lt

 

'Ptcasantfroagranctl

 

? Thousands meolars

 

? Easy soap & WabW Cleao-ull

 

SARN 800.00

 


 

? 8mHUlSS

 


 

? Spot Resistanl

 


 

? Thousands IJ1Colors

 

? Easy Soap &; water &lean-up

 

SOO.OO

 


 

FlAT SOOOOO ? SARN SOO.OO

 


 

(DEALER IMPRINT)

 


 

Industry research on paint purchase behavior indicates that a large number of doit-yours elfers choose a store before selecting a brand. However, a brand name is

 

also important to consumers because they do think about paint they have seen

 

advertised when choosing a brand. This becomes very important in those stores

 

carrying multiple brands. It seems to me that we need an awareness level of at

 

least 30 percent among do-it-yourselfers to materially affect our sales.

 

Preliminary talks with our ad agency indicate that an increase of $350,000 in

 


 

corporate brand advertising beyond what we are now spending, with an emphasis

 


 

116

 


 

CHAPTER 4 OPPORTUNITY

 


 

EXHIBIT

 


 

ANALYSIS, MARKET SEGMENTATION, AND MARKET TARGETING

 


 

5

 


 

Percentage ofDFW Population That Was Aware of Paint Brands and

 

Purchased Paint in the Last 12 Months

 

100,-------------------------------------------------~

 


 

~

 


 

50

 

45

 

40

 

35

 


 

~

 

~

 


 

30

 

25

 

20

 


 

5

 


 

15

 

10

 


 

5

 

Awareness

 


 

LastBrand

 

Bought

 


 

Awareness Question: "What brands come to mind when you think of paint?"

 

Last Brand Bought: "What paint brand did you purchase the last time you bought paint?"

 

Note: Sample size was N = 400. Percentages are subject to a 5 percent sampling error.

 


 

on television, will be necessary to achieve this awareness level. Furthermore, this

 

television coverage will reach non-DFW consumers in some 15 counties as well.

 

Vice President oj Operations: I don't agree. Advertising is not the way to go, and

 

reference to the DFW area alone is too narrow a focus. We have to be competitive

 

in the do-it-yourselfer paint market, period. Our shopper research program

 

indicated that dealers will quickly back off from our brand when the customer

 

appears price-sensitive. We must cut our price by 20 percent on all paint products

 

to achieve parity with national paint brands. Look here. In today's newspaper, we

 

advertise a price-off special on our exterior paint, and our price is still noticeably

 

higher than a mass merchandiser's everyday price. With both ads on the same

 

page, a customer would have to be an idiot to patronize one of our dealers.

 

Vice President of Sales: Forget the DFW market. We ought to be putting our effort into

 

non-DFW areas, where half of our sales and most of our dealers exist right now.

 

I hate to admit it, but our sales representatives could be more aggressive. We have

 

only added five new accounts in the last five years; our account penetration in

 

non-DFW areas is only 16 percent. I'm partially at fault, but I'm ready to act. We

 

should add one additional sales representative whose sole responsibility is to

 

develop new retail account leads and presentations or call on professional

 

painters to solicit their business through our dealers. I've figured the direct cost

 

to keep one rep in the field at $60,000 per year, excluding commission.

 


 

$60,000 = FC

 


 

Vice President oj Finance: Everyone is proposing a change in our orientation. Let me be

 

the devil's advocate and favor pursuing our current approach. We now sell to both

 

the homeowner and the professional painter in DFW and non-DFW markets

 


 

through our dealers. We have been and will continue to be profitable by judiciously

 


 

JONES'

 


 

117

 


 

BLAIR COMPANY

 


 

guarding our margins and controlling costs. Our contribution margin is 35 percent.

 

Everyone suggests that increasing our costs will somehow result in greater sales volume. Let me remind you, Alex, we have said that it is our policy to recoup noncapital expenditures within a one-year time horizon. If we increase our advertising by

 

an incremental amount of $350,000, then we had better see the incremental sales

 

volume as well. The same goes for additional sales representatives and, I might add,

 

any across-the-board cut in prices.

 

Mr. Barrett: We keep going over the same ground. All of you have valid arguments, but

 


 

we must prioritize. Let's think about what's best for all of us.

 

Increased advertising seems reasonable, since national paint firms and mass

 

merchandisers outspend us tenfold in absolute terms. You are right in saying people

 

have to be aware of us before they will buy, or even consider,]on...

 


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