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(Solved) Question 1 HIV escapes the effects of ARV drugs by: a.


Question 1

  1. HIV escapes the effects of ARV drugs by:
    a. incorporating the chemicals.
    b. behaving like the immune cells it infects.
    c. pretending to be a benign virus.
    d. changing its genetic make-up.


4 points  


Question 2
  1. Match the ARV drug category with its appropriate mechanism of action (only one correct answer per choice):


NRTI
NNRTI
PI
  1. Fusion inhibitor
    a. Inhibits integrase enzyme during proviral integration
    b. Inhibits activity of protease
    c. Competes with natural substrates and incorporates into growing DNA chain
    d. Prevents binding of gp120/gp41 to CCR5
    e. Binds non-competitively to reverse transcriptase
    f. Blocks maturation of capsid precursor to mature capsid protein


4 points  


Question 3
  1. HIV primarily infects red blood cells.

    True

    False

2 points  



Question 4
  1. Among heterosexuals, HIV transmission from male-to-female and female-to-male are equally efficient.

    True

    False

2 points  



Question 5
  1. Which of the following modes of transmission is not a recognized mode of HIV transmission?
    a. Perinatal transmission
    b. Orogenital sex
    c. Unprotected sex with an infected partner
    d. Sitting on a public toilet seat
    e. Mosquito bite
    f. Needle stick

2 points  



Question 6
  1. Match the names of the different vaccine design strategies with their corresponding descriptions.


Live vector vaccines
DNA vaccines
Peptide vaccines
Recombinant subunit protein vaccines
  1. Virus-like particle vaccine
    a. Non-HIV viruses or bacteria engineered to carry genes encoding HIV proteins
    b. Contain pieces of HIV DNA joined to pieces of harmless bacterial DNA
    c. Made of bigger pieces of proteins that are on the surface of the HIV virus
    d. Made of tiny pieces of proteins from the HIV virus, which are simpler and less expensive to make than whole proteins
    e. A non-infectious HIV look-alike that has one ore more, but not all, HIV proteins


5 points  


Question 7
  1. In measuring the effectiveness of a test, Blank 1 is defined as the proportion of true negatives that are correctly identified by the test, while Blank 2 is defined as the proportion of true positives that are correctly identified by the test.

2 points  



Question 8
  1. The HIV genome is composed of Blank 1 genes which corresponds with Blank 2 proteins. (For this question, you should be typing in numbers)

2 points  



Question 9
  1. How many people are estimated to be newly infected with an STI each year?
    a. 19 million
    b. 40 million
    c. 200 million
    d. 340 million

4 points  



Question 10
  1. Which of the following STIs is most commonly diagnosed in the U.S.?
    a. Trichomoniasis
    b. HIV
    c. HPV
    d. Chlamydia

4 points  



Question 11
  1. Match the condition/disease name with the agent that causes it.


Genital herpes
Genital warts
Chancroid
Granuloma inguinale
Syphilis
  1. Lyphogranuloma venereum
    a. Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
    b. HPV
    c. Chlamydia trachomatis
    d. Haemophilus ducreyi
    e. Treponema pallidum
    f. HSV


6 points  


Question 12
  1. Describe the 4 characteristics of an ideal HIV vaccine.
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4 points  



Question 13
  1. Which of the following is not a determinant of perinatal HIV transmission?
    a. Maternal STD
    b. Congenital anomalies
    c. Baby's birth order
    d. Gestational age of the baby

4 points  



Question 14
  1. List the 4 major stages of HIV disease. Briefly (2-4 sentences) describe what is happening in each of these 4 major stages (both with the virus and with the infected person's immune system).
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8 points  



Question 15
  1. List 2 major biological factors that contribute to HIV viral diversity.
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2 points  



Question 16
  1. The major HIV-1 subtype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa is subtype Blank 1, while the main subtype circulating in Europe and the U.S. is subtype Blank 2.

2 points  



Question 17
  1. Define the following 2 terms: (1) primary prevention; (2) secondary prevention.
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2 points  



Question 18
  1. In a Phase I vaccine trial, there are generally Blank 1 to Blank 2 subjects enrolled and the trial general lasts from Blank 3 to Blank 4 months. (All answers should be numbers)

4 points  



Question 19
  1. List 4 messages/programs/areas that prevention programs have focused on in their attempts to prevent HIV transmission.
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4 points  



Question 20
  1. List any 6 pregnancy-related complications that have been found with any of the bacterial STIs/conditions. You do not need to name the STI/condition, just the complication. Also note: an answer of "no effect" will not be accepted as 1 of the 6 responses for this particular question. Please make sure that your 6 differ from one another if you want them counted as 6 separate answers.
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6 points  



Question 21
  1. Which of the following STIs/conditions is referred to as "the great imitator"?
    a. LGV
    b. Syphilis
    c. BV
    d. HSV

4 points  



Question 22
  1. Put the following modes of transmission in order from cause of highest to lowest percentage of HIV cases worldwide:


Perinatal



Injection drug use



Homosexual sex



Blood/blood transfusion products



  1. Heterosexual sex


5 points  


Question 23
  1. Relative to viruses, bacterial are complex in structure.

    True

    False

2 points  



Question 24
  1. Seroconversion refers to:
    The period during which clinical manifestations of HIV are present
    The period before clinical manifestations of HIV occur
    Contact with bodily fluid containing HIV
    The appearance of detectable antibodies in the blood

4 points  



Question 25
  1. The virus that causes AIDS, which was officially identified in 1983, was first referred to as:
    a. LAV
    b. HIV
    c. HTLV-III
    d. GRID

2 points  



Question 26
  1. Which HIV gene encodes the enzyme that is responsible for its high mutation rate?
    a. Pol
    b. Nef
    c. Env
    d. Gag

4 points  



Question 27
  1. Briefly explain (2-3 sentences) 2 major reasons why HIV testing is important (1 reason should focus on the patient and 1 reason on general public health).
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2 points  



Question 28
  1. GBV-C and measles virus have been shown to _________ HIV-1 replication in cells.
    a. inhibit
    b. enhance
    c. both inhibit and enhance
    d. have no effect on

4 points  




 


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DATE ANSWERED

Oct 15, 2019

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